Copyright © 1998 The Marie Selby Botanical Gardens
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Note: The final printed version of this document can be found in the journal Selbyana 19(1): 91-121. 1998. This issue is available from the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens for $35, and includes several other Bromeliad-related articles, as well as articles on orchid conservation. Send checks (payable to Selbyana) to

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AN ANNOTATED CATALOGUE OF THE GENERIC NAMES

OF THE BROMELIACEAE

 

 

Jason R. Grant1

University of Alaska Museum, 907 Yukon Drive

Fairbanks, Alaska 99775 U.S.A.

Gea Zijlstra

Department of Plant Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Herbarium, University of Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 2

NL-3584 CS Utrecht, The Netherlands

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 Author for correspondence

ABSTRACT

An annotated catalogue of the known generic names of the Bromeliaceae is presented. It accounts for 187 names in six lists:
I. Generic names (133),
II. Invalid names (7),
III. A synonymized checklist of the genera of the Bromeliaceae (56 accepted genera, and 77 synonyms),
IV. Nothogenera (bigeneric hybrids) (41),
V. Invalid nothogenus (1), and
VI. Putative fossil genera (5).
Comments on nomenclature or taxonomy are given when necessary to explain problematic issues, and notes on important researchers of the family are intercalated throughout. The etymological derivation of each name is given, including if named after a person, a brief remark on their identity. Appended is a chronological list of monographs of the Bromeliaceae and other works significant to the taxonomy of the family.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

This paper catalogues all the known generic names of the Bromeliaceae. These names have appeared in the literature since the starting-point of binomial nomenclature in Linnaeus’ ‘Species plantarum’ (1753). The catalogue accounts for 187 names in six lists:
I. Generic names (133)
II. Invalid names, i.e. names without description or status, listed here merely for historical documentation (7)
III. A synonymized checklist of the genera of the Bromeliaceae (56 accepted genera, and 77 synonyms)
IV. Nothogenera (bigeneric hybrids) (41)
V. Invalid nothogenus (1), and
VI. Putative fossil genera, likely other monocots or cycads (5).

Journal and book citations follow ‘Botanico-Periodicum-Huntianum’ [B-P-H] (Lawrence et al. 1968), ‘Botanico-Periodicum-Huntianum/ Supplementum’ [B-P-H/S] (Bridson & Smith 1991), and ‘Taxonomic literature’ [TL-II] (Stafleu & Cowan 1976-1988) respectively. Author abbreviations follow ‘Authors of plant names’ (Brummitt & Powell 1992). Rules of nomenclature follow the ‘International code of botanical nomenclature (Tokyo Code)’ (Greuter et al. 1994), and the ‘International code of nomenclature for cultivated plants - (ICNCP or Cultivated plant code)’ (Trehane et al. 1995).

A number of the entries in this catalogue are substantially amended from the citation published in either ‘Index nominum genericorum (Plantarum)’ [ING] (Farr, Leussink & Stafleu 1979), or ‘Index nominum genericorum (Plantarum) Supplementum I’ [ING/S] (Farr, Leussink & Zijlstra 1986). For the accurate verification of names, the protologue of each was studied and photocopied for future reference. Examination and understanding of that original text typically written in German, French, or Latin, were critical to resolving some of the nomenclatural problems of the Bromeliaceae.

The Bromeliaceae are a fascinating family that continue to elude taxonomists in delineating a natural generic classification. Nevertheless, new approaches in plant systematics are likely to clarify many unresolved circumscriptions. The synthesis of traditional and newly-identified morphological characters with data from other fields is likely to change our understanding of its complex and reticulate evolutionary patterns; e.g. molecular systematics [e.g. the nucleotide sequences of the plastid gene rbcL (Chase et al. in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80: 528-580. 1993), and the nucleotide sequences of the plastid locus ndhF (Terry, Brown & Olmstead in Syst. Bot. 22: 333-345. 1997)], palynology (e.g. Ehler & Schill in Pollen & Spores 15: 13-45. 1973, and Halbritter in Die Bromelie 1990: 18-21. 1991), cytology (e.g. Brown & Gilmartin in Selbyana 9: 88-93. 1986, and Brown & Terry in J. Cryptanthus Soc. 6:14-15. 1991), chemistry [including that of floral anthocyanins (e.g. Scogin & Freeman in Aliso 10: 617-619. 1984, and Scogin in Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 13: 387-389. 1985), nectar constituents (e.g. Bernardello, Galetto & Juliani in Ann. Bot. (London) 67: 401-411. 1991), and leaf flavinoids (e.g. Williams in Phytochemistry 17: 729-734. 1978)], photosynthetic pathways, i.e. patterns of carbon fixation (e.g. Medina in Evolution 28: 677-686. 1974, and Loeschen, Martin, Smith, & Eder in Int. J. Pl. Sci. 154: 100-106. 1993), germination studies (e.g. Groß in Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 63: 101-113. 1988), anatomy (e.g. Robinson in Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 2. 1969), geography, ecology, and pollination biology. Such resolution will likely lead to the resurrection of genera from synonymy, the establishment of new genera, or the placement currently recognized genera into synonymy. Therefore, before any such revisionary action is taken, it is essential to have a complete and accurate catalogue of all the generic names of the family with all their nomenclatural problems clearly outlined. This reference was compiled to reduce confusion in the generic nomenclature, ease the determination of priority, and lessen errors in name selection.

Most bromeliad genera named for persons honor Europeans, e.g. Germans, Dyckia, Hechtia, and Hohenbergia, Frenchmen, Chevaliera, Neoglaziovia, and Pepinia, and Swedes, Billbergia, Lindmania, and Wittrockia. These genera were also named exclusively after men with only two recent exceptions, Racinaea and Ursulaea. While several important bromeliad monographers and researchers are commemorated with currently recognized genera, e.g. Lymania, Mezobromelia, Neoregelia, and Werauhia, some are not so honored. It would be desirable that generic names in the Bromeliaceae honoring Édouard Morren, Johann Georg Beer, and Karl Koch be established to recognize the significant contributions each has made to the taxonomy of the family. Although names honoring several other bromeliad researchers have been proposed, Andrea (after Édouard François André), Bakeria and Bakerantha (after John Gilbert Baker), and Wittmackia (after Max Carl Ludwig Wittmack) all are currently regarded as synonyms.

There is a rich body of taxonomic, horticultural, and nomenclatural literature of the Bromeliaceae dating to the 18th century, but more importantly from the mid-19th century to the present time. Within this catalogue, there are references to these publications including an appendix that contains a chronological list of important works that identify the significant milestones in bromeliad taxonomy.


LIST I: GENERIC NAMES

Abromeitiella Mez, Bot. Arch. 19: 460. 1 Sep 1927. - T.: Abromeitiella pulvinata Mez, Bot. Arch. 19: 460. 1927 = Abromeitiella brevifolia (Griseb.) A. Cast., Anales Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires 36: 371. 1931. Deuterocohnia brevifolia (Griseb.) M.A. Spencer & L.B. Sm., Bradea 6: 144. 27 Nov 1992. Currently considered a synonym of Deuterocohnia. See Spencer & Smith (in Bradea 6: 141-146. 27 Nov 1992). Named in honor of Johannes Abromeit (1857-1946), German botanist at Königsberg, East Prussia [today Kaliningrad, Russia].

Acanthospora Spreng., Anleit. Kenntn. Gew. Ed. 2, 2(1): 255. 20 Apr 1817, nom. illeg. º Bonapartea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. 3: 38. Aug 1802. - T.: Bonapartea juncea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. 3: 38. Aug 1802. Tillandsia juncea (Ruiz & Pav.) Poir. in Lam., Encycl. suppl. 5(1): 309. 1 Nov 1817. Acanthospora juncea (Ruiz & Pav.) Spreng., Syst. veg. 2: 25. Jan-Mai 1825. Acanthospora is an obligate synonym of Bonapartea. From the Greek akanthos, a prickly plant, and spora, seed.

Acanthostachys Klotzsch in Link, Klotzsch & Otto, Ic. pl. rar. 1(2): 21. 15-21 Nov 1840 (‘1841’). - T.: Hohenbergia strobilacea Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): 1252. Oct-Dec. 1830. Acanthostachys strobilacea (Schult. & Schult.f.) Klotzsch in Link, Klotzsch & Otto, Ic. pl. rar. 1(2): 21. 15-21 Nov 1840 (‘1841’). Currently recognized as a monospecific genus in the subfam. Bromelioideae. From the Greek akanthos, a prickly plant, and stachys, spike.

Aechmea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. prodr.: 47. Oct 1794, nom. cons. (against Hoiriri Adans., Fam. pl. 2: 67, 584. Jul-Aug 1763). - T.: Aechmea paniculata Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. 3: 37. Aug 1802. When Ruiz & Pavon originally established Aechmea, they did not attribute any species to the genus. In 1802, they described a single species, Aechmea paniculata, thereby establishing it as the obligate type. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. The genus sensu Smith & Downs (1979) is clearly artificial, polyphyletic, and in need of a careful revision. The attempts by Smith & Kress (in Phytologia 66: 70-79. 1989, and Phytologia 69: 272-274. 1990) to alleviate the problem by elevating the seven subgenera of Aechmea recognized by Smith & Downs (1979) to the generic rank only caused further confusion. Particularly problematic is the incorrectness in their choice of generic names. From the Greek, aichme, spear.

Agallostachys Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 16, 35. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’). - LT.: Bromelia sylvestris Willd. ex Link, Enum. 1: 308. 1821, designated by Pfeiffer (in Nomencl. bot. 1: 73. 8 Dec 1871). Agallostachys sylvestris Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 35. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’) º Bromelia alsodes H. St. John, Taxon 14: 29. 1965, its avowed substitute, not Bromelia sylvestris Burm.f., Fl. indica: 79. 1 Mar-6 Apr 1768 (Pandanaceae). Currently considered a synonym of Bromelia. From the Greek agallis, a plant, and stachys, spike, as to the habit.

Austrian botanist at Vienna Johann Georg Beer (1803-1873) wrote ‘Die Familie der Bromeliaceen, nach ihrem habituellen Charakter bearbeitet mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Ananassa’ [The Family of the Bromeliads, compiled according to their usual characters with particular regard to the pineapple.] In this work published in 1856 (though dated 1857), Beer described seven new genera: Agallostachys, Chevaliera, Lamprococcus, Orthopetalum, Phlomostachys, Pityrophyllum, and Platystachys. This is the single-most important treatment of the Bromeliaceae before the monographs of Baker and Mez.

Alcantarea (E. Morren ex Mez) Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 10: 802. 30 Dec 1929, based on Vriesea subg. Alcantarea E. Morren ex Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 516. 1 Feb 1894. - LT.: Tillandsia regina Vell., Fl. flumin. 136. 1829, designated here. Vriesea regina (Vell.) Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 97. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’). Alcantarea regina (Vell.) Harms in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Ed. 2, 15a: 126. 1930. Since it is not clear how the two lectotypifications of Alcantarea by Smith should be interpreted, a new choice is made here. Smith (in ING Card No. 00035. 1 Oct 1955), mentioned the type of Alcantarea as "Vriesia imperialis E. Morren." However, that name was never actually published by Morren himself. Smith & Downs (in Fl. Neotrop. 14: 1071. 1977), mentioned the type as "Vriesea imperialis E. Morren ex Mez in Martius, Fl. Bras 3(3): 516. 1894." In this case, the problem is that this is a reference to the taxonomic key in Mez’ work, where V. imperialis is actually treated with full description on p. 568. Also, V. imperialis E. Morren ex Mez appears to be illegitimate because Mez placed into synonymy beneath it an already-existing, validly published species, V. gigantea Lem., Ill. Hort. 14: pl. 516. 1867 [= Alcantarea geniculata (Wawra) J.R. Grant, Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt 91: 13. 1995] [not V. gigantea Gaudich. ex Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 94. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’); nor V. gigantea (Mart. ex Schult. & Schult.f.) Mez in Mart., Fl. Bras. 3(3): 566. 1894 º Werauhia gigantea (Mart. ex Schult. & Schult.f.) J.R. Grant, Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt 91: 31. 1995]. Compounding the problem of Vriesea imperialis E. Morren ex Mez is the existence of the previously published name Vriesea imperialis Carrière, Rev. Hort. 60: 58. 1888 (also cited by Smith & Downs in Fl. Neotrop. 14: 1268. 1977), of which Mez was apparently unaware.

The lectotypification here of Alcantarea is necessary because the previously accepted type of the genus, V. imperialis, is not an original element of Vriesea subg. Alcantarea. There are four species of Vriesea listed by Mez (in Mart. in Fl. bras. 3(3): 516 1894) from which to choose a lectotype: Vriesea geniculata, V. imperialis E. Morren ex Mez, V. regina, and V. vasta. Vriesea regina is chosen as the lectotype not only to avoid the problems surrounding Vriesea imperialis, but also to return to Morren’s circumscription of Alcantarea. Baker (at Kew) examined Morren’s collection of paintings and manuscripts (that had been sold to Kew) before that of Mez. See text under Canistrum. Baker (in Handb. Bromel.: 22. 1889) states regarding Vriesea regina: "It is the type of Morren’s subgenus Alcantarea, named after the Emperor of Brazil..."

Édouard Morren prepared a manuscript in which he planned to describe either the genus ‘Dalcantarea’, or Vriesea subg. ‘Dalcantarea’. However, in a letter dated 23 Dec 1882 to Morren, Swiss botanist Alphonse de Candolle (1806-1893) wrote: " Par nommer un genre d’après l’Empereur du Brésil on doit certainnement supprimer le d’." [To name a genus after the Emperor of Brazil, one must certainly eliminate the d’.] So, taking de Candolle’s advice, Morren removed the "d" from his manuscripts, and used the name ‘Alcantarea’. Unfortunately, with Morren’s untimely death in 1886, the name went unpublished. Later, Carl Mez who like Baker studied the manuscripts, and published some of Morren’s ‘nomina inedita‘ [unpublished names], including Alcantarea.

Currently recognized in the subfam. Tillandsioideae. See Grant (in Bromélia 2: 24-26. 1996) and Luther (in Selbyana 18: 128. 1997). Named in honor of Dom Pedro II - Dom Pedro de Alcântara João Carlos Leopoldo Salvador Bibiano Francisco Xavier de Paulo Leocadio Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga (1825-1889), second Emperor of Brazil (1840-1889).

When the Committee for Spermatophyta determined that the name Alcantara is a homonym of Alcantarea (Brummitt in Taxon 43: 113-126. 1994) a new name for it was established as follows: Xerxes J.R. Grant, Nord. J. Bot. 14: 287. 1994, an avowed substitute for Alcantara Glaziou ex G.M. Barroso, Loefgrenia 36: 1. 15 Aug 1969 (Asteraceae), not Alcantarea (E. Morren ex Mez) Harms (1929) (Bromeliaceae).

Allardtia A. Dietr., Allg. Gartenzeitung 20: 241. 31 Jul 1852. Platystachys K. Koch, Ind. Sem. Berol. 1854, App.: 11. 1855 was published as an avowed substitute for Allardtia, treating it as a homonym of Allardia Decne. in Jacquem., Voy. Inde Bot. 87. ante 13 Jun 1836 (Asteraceae). - T.: Allardtia cyanea A. Dietr., Allg. Gartenzeitung 20: 241. 1852. Tillandsia cyanea (A. Dietr.) E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 29: 297. 1879. Tillandsia guatemalensis L.B. Sm., Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 29: 281. 1949, is the avowed substitute for Allardtia cyanea A. Dietr. when recognized in Tillandsia, not Tillandsia cyanea K. Koch, Wochenschr. Vereines Beförd. Gartenbaues Königl. Preuss. Staaten 10: 140. 4 Mai 1867. Currently considered a synonym of Tillandsia. Named in honor of "handelsgärtner" [trade gardener] and orchid collector, "Herr [Mr.] Allardt".

Anacyclia Hoffmanns., Preiss-Verzeichn. Pflanzen.: 10. 1833. - T.: Anacyclia farinosa Hoffmanns., Preiss-Verzeichn. Pflanzen.: 10. 1833 = Billbergia zebrina (Herb.) Lindl., Bot. Reg. 13: ad t. 1068. 1827. Currently considered a synonym of Billbergia. From the Greek ana, up, back, or again, and kyklos, circle.

Ananas Mill., Gard. Dict. abr. Ed. 4: [unpaged]. 28 Jan 1754. - NT.: Bromelia ananas L., Sp. pl.: 285. 1 Mai 1753 = Bromelia comosa L., Herb. amb. 21. 11 Mai 1754, designated by L.B. Smith (in N. Amer. Fl. 19: 214. 27 Dec 1938). Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill, Interpr. Herb. amboin. 133. 1 Nov 1917. Miller used polynomials instead of the binomial nomenclature initiated only the year before by Linnaeus. Consequently, although the genus was validly published, no binomials were established. A polynomial is a descriptive sentence of perhaps four-ten words that describe a taxon in diagnosis format; e.g. "Ananas aculeatus fructu conico, carne aurea". To avoid the tautonym ‘Ananas ananas’, the next validly published name for this taxon is used, Bromelia comosa. This name is recognized as a neotype instead of lectotype since Miller was unaware of the name Bromelia comosa. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae.

Ananas as interpreted by Gaertner (Fruct. sem. pl. 1: 30. Dec 1788), and the orthographic variant ‘Ananassa’ (cited from Lindl., Bot. Reg. 13: ad t. 1068. 1 Jun 1827) are not separate generic names as suggested by ‘Index nominum genericorum’ (1979). Accordingly, their recognition is not warranted, and each should be removed from any listing of generic names.

In 1493, the Carib American Indians of the Caribbean introduced the pineapple to the first European explorer of that part of the New World, Christóbal Colón (Christopher Columbus). The first documentation of the fruit in European literature is in the book ‘La Historia de las Indias’ (1535-1546) by Gonzalo Hernandez Oviedo (Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 208. 1856). Oviedo described and figured the ‘Piñas’ or ‘Pomme de pin’ from Santo Domingo, Hispaniola [Dominican Republic]. André Thevet in his ‘Les singularités de la France antarctique, autrement nommée Amerique’ (1559) described the ‘Nanas’ from Brazil, while Jean de Lery in his ‘Histoire d’un voyage fait en la terre du Brésil’ (1580) is the first to attribute the name ‘Ananas’ to the plant we know today as the pineapple, Ananas comosus. Therefore, the generic name of the pineapple derives from a language of the indigenous peoples of Brazil. Since then, the pineapple has become a ubiquitous symbol of hospitality, and one of the most popular exotic fruits.

Andrea Mez in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 114. Jan 1896. - T.: Quesnelia selloana Baker, Handb. Bromel.: 87. 17 Aug-15 Oct 1889. Andrea selloana (Baker) Mez in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 114. Jan 1896. Nidularium selloanum (Baker) E. Pereira & Leme, Bradea 4: 235. 1986. Currently considered a synonym of Nidularium. See Pereira & Leme (in Bradea 4: 235. 1986). Named in honor of French horticulturist Édouard François André (1840-1911) at Paris, editor of the French horticultural journals ‘Illustration Horticole’ (1868-1880) and ‘Revue Horticole’ (1882-1911), and author of the important work ‘Bromeliaceae Andreanae’ (1889). "Dicatum cl. Éd. André, Parisiensi, bromeliographo sagacissimo." [Dedicated to the illustrious and most wise author of bromeliads, Édouard André of Paris.]

In his first monograph of the Bromeliaceae in ‘Monographiae phanerogamarum’ (1896), Carl Mez described three new genera: Andrea, Deinacanthon, and Lindmania. The Bromeliaceae encompasses the entire volume 9 of this 9-volume work. This is also the only volume of the work edited by Swiss botanist C. de Candolle alone [Alphonse de Candolle’s son, Anne Casimir Pyramus de Candolle (1836-1918)].

Androlepis Brongn. ex Houllet, Rev. Hort. 42: 12. 1870. - T.: Androlepis skinneri Brongn. ex Houllet, Rev. Hort. 42: 12. 1870. Currently recognized as a monospecific genus in the subfam. Bromelioideae. From the Greek andros, man, and lepis, scale. The specific epithet honors British orchidologist George Ure Skinner (1804-1867), who sent living collections from Guatemala to Jean Jules Linden (1817-1898), Luxembourgeois botanical explorer living in Brussels, Belgium.

Anoplophytum Beer, Flora 37: 346. 14 Jun 1854. - T.: Tillandsia stricta Sol. ex Sims, Bot. Mag. 37: ad t. 1529. 1813. Anoplophytum strictum (Sol. ex Sims) Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 39. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’). Currently considered a synonym of Tillandsia. Beer did not associate a species with the genus initially, but established the obligate type two years later. From the Greek anoplos, unarmed, and phyton, plant, likely as to the entire leaves.

The text in which Anoplophytum, Cochliopetalum, Cremobotrys, Diaphoranthema, Hoplophytum, Orthophytum, and Streptocalyx were published (Flora 37: 346-349. 14 Jun 1854) was reprinted in Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 10: 313-317. 1854. Since this issue of Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung was the ‘Seibentes Heft’ (7th issue), it was likely published in July (after the Flora version) as there were twelve issues a year.

Araeococcus Brongn., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 2, 15: 370. 1841. - T.: Araeococcus micranthus Brongn., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 2, 15: 370. 1841. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. From the Greek araios, thin, and the Latin coccum, berry.

Aregelia Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 2: 698. 5 Nov 1891. Aregelia was published as an avowed substitute, treating Nidularium as a homonym of Nidularia; Nidularium Lem., Jard. Fleur. 4: ad t. 411; Misc.: 60. 1854, non Nidularia Fr. in Fr. & Nordholm, Symb. gasteromyc. 1: 2. 1817 (nom. cons.) (Gasteromycetes), nec Nidularia Bull. ex J. St.-Hil., Expos. Fam. Nat. 1: 6. 1805 (nom. rej.) (Gasteromycetes). - T.: Nidularium fulgens Lem., Jard. Fleur. 4: ad t. 411; Misc.: 60. 1854. When Kuntze established Aregelia as a new name for Nidularium Lem., non Nidularia Bull. ex J. St.-Hil., he simultaneously reduced Regelia (Lem.) Lindm. (1890) into synonymy under Aregelia noting that it was a later homonym of Regelia Schauer, Linnaea 17: 243. 1843 (Myrtaceae). Mez (1896) incorrectly interpreted the nomenclature as he considered Aregelia to be a new name for Regelia (Lem.) Lindm., rather than a new name for Nidularium. Mez (1896) retained Aregelia as a distinct genus with Regelia (Lem.) Lindm. in synonymy. He also regarded the genus Nidularium as distinct. Nevertheless, no new combination was ever proposed for ‘Aregelia fulgens’ based on the type of Nidularium, N. fulgens. Mez’s interpretation of Aregelia is incorrect because he did not include the type species (N. fulgens) of the name it replaced, Nidularium. That group, Aregelia sensu Mez (but primarily Regelia (Lem.) Lindm. 1890) was re-circumscribed as Neoregelia by Smith (in Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 78. 1934). Aregelia is an obligate synonym of Nidularium.

The taxonomy of Aregelia/Nidularium, Regelia/Neoregelia, and Karatas is disturbingly confusing, and has been the subject of various interpretations. For a good historical perspective, see Lindman (in Öfvers. Förh. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. 47: 531-543. 1890). Named in honor of C. von Regel, but not Constantin Andreas von Regel (1890-1970) (since it was published 1891), nor Eduard Regel who is honored with Regelia and Neoregelia. "Dem kaiserl. russischen Geheimen Staatsrath C. von Regel zu Ehren sei dieses Genus benannt." [This genus is named in honor of the Imperial Russian Privy State Councilor C. von Regel.]

Ayensua L.B. Sm., Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 18: 29. Jun 1969. - T.: Barbacenia uaipanensis Maguire, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 9: 477. 1957. Ayensua uaipanensis (Maguire) L.B. Sm., Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 18: 29. Jun 1969. Before this species was transferred to Ayensua, it was assigned to Barbacenia (Velloziaceae). Currently recognized as a monospecific genus in the subfam. Pitcairnioideae. Named in honor of Edward Solomon Ayensu (1935-) of Ghana, collaborator with Smith on the Velloziaceae, and at the time on the staff at the Smithsonian Institution.

Bakerantha L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 72. 6 Aug 1934, an avowed substitute for Bakeria André, Rev. Hort. 61: 84. 1889, not Bakeria Seem., J. Bot. 2: 239, 248. 1 Aug 1864 (Araliaceae). - T.: Bakeria tillandsioides André, Rev. Hort. 61: 84. 1889. Bakerantha tillandsioides (André) L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 72. 6 Aug 1934. Hechtia tillandsioides (André) L.B. Sm., Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 29: 431. 1951. Currently considered a synonym of Hechtia. Named in honor of John Gilbert Baker (1834-1920).

Bakeria André, Rev. Hort. 61: 84. 1889, nom. illeg. [non Bakeria Seem., J. Bot. 2: 239, 248. 1 Aug 1864 (Araliaceae)] º Bakerantha L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 72. 6 Aug 1934. - T.: Bakeria tillandsioides André, Rev. Hort. 61: 84. 1889. Bakerantha tillandsioides (André) L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 72. 6 Aug 1934. Hechtia tillandsioides (André) L.B. Sm., Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 29: 431. 1951. Bakeria is an obligate synonym of Bakerantha. André was well aware of the presence of the name Bakeria Seem. when he established his Bakeria. However, as he notes that that name had been placed into synonymy under Pterandra (Malpighiaceae) by the authors of ‘Genera Plantarum’, he established a new Bakeria as was often done at the time. Named in honor of Englishman John Gilbert Baker (1834-1920), botanist at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England, and author of the landmark ‘Handbook of the Bromeliaceae’ (1889). "…le savant botaniste de Kew, qui a tant décrit de Broméliacées nouvelles et connait si bien cette famille. C’est d’ailleurs avec satisfaction qu’il a accueili la proposition de voir son nom attaché à un ordre de plantes qu’il affectionne particulièrement." […the learned botanist of Kew, who described new bromeliads so much and who knows that family so well. It is, moreover, with satisfaction that he welcomed the proposal to see his name attached to a group of plants that he particularly likes.]

Billbergia Thunb., Pl. bras. 3: 30. 23 Mai 1821. - T.: Billbergia speciosa Thunb., Pl. bras. 3: 30. 23 Mai 1821. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. Named in honor of Swedish ‘Kammarrättsråd’ [judge], botanist, and zoologist Gustaf Johann Billberg (1772-1844). "Nomen dare voluit, deditque illustr. Praefes in honorem Botanici longe Celeberrimi, Florae Svecicae elegantissimae jam Auctoris mentissimi, Domini Gust. Johan Billberg. Confiliarii Camerae Rationalis dig nissimi et Equitis de Stella polari splendidissimi." [Wished to give the name in honor of the most well known botanist, the most wise author of the elegant Flora of Sweden, Master Gust. Johan Billberg. Brothers (Thunberg and Billberg) of the Chamber of Reason, and Knight of the most splendid Polar Star.]

Bonapartea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. 3: 38. Aug 1802. - LT.: Bonapartea juncea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. 3: 38. Aug 1802, designated by L.B. Smith (in ING Card No. 00135. 1 Oct 1955). Tillandsia juncea (Ruiz & Pav.) Poir. in Lam., Encycl. suppl. 5(1): 309. 1 Nov 1817. Currently considered a synonym of Tillandsia. It is noteworthy that three genera have Bonapartea juncea as type: Acanthospora (1817), Bonapartea (1802), and Misandra (1819). Named in honor of Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), i.e. Napoleon I, First Consul of France 1799-1804, Emperor of the French (1804-1815). "Genus dicatum Napoleoni Bonaparte, Gallicae Reipublicae denuo constitutae Conditori, Primo Consuli, Parenti, Imperatori semper invicto, Botanices omniumque fructuosarum Scientarum et Artium Patrono, Religionis Assertori, de utroque orbe tandem pacato optime merito, Viro immortali, et post hominum memoriam rebus gestis clarissimo." [Genus dedicated to Napoleon Bonaparte, Founder who established anew the Gallic Republic [France], First Council, Father [of the Republic], always invincible Emperor, patron of all the producing sciences and arts, defender of religion, from the globe pacified by his great merit, immortal man, and the most famous achievements in the memory of humanity.]

Brewcaria L.B. Sm., Steyerm. & H. Rob., Acta Bot. Venez. 14(3): 10. Jun-Dec 1984. - T.: Brewcaria duidensis L.B. Sm., Steyerm. & H. Rob., Acta Bot. Venez. 14(3): 10. Jun-Dec 1984. Currently recognized in the subfam. Pitcairnioideae. See Smith (in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 73: 714. 1987. [‘1986’]). Named in honor of prominent Venezuelan explorer and naturalist Charles Brewer-Carías, organizer of the expedition to Cerro de la Neblina, in the Guayana Highlands of Venezuela, where the genus was discovered.

Brocchinia Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxx, 1250. Oct-Dec 1830. - T.: Brocchinia paniculata Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxx, 1250. Oct-Dec 1830. Currently recognized in the subfam. Pitcairnioideae. See Holst (in BioLlania Ed. spec. 6: 475-380. 1997). Named in honor of Italian naturalist Giovanni Battista Brocchi (1772-1826). "Diximus in honorem divi G.B. Brocchi, Italiae splendidi decoris, qui amore scientiae naturalius deperiit in Nubia." [Dedicated in honor of G.B. Brocchi, the most splendid fame of Italy, who loved natural sciences, and died in Nubia (Egypt).]

Julius Hermann Schultes (Schult.f.; 1804-1840) co-authored with his father Josef August Schultes (Schult.; 1773-1831), volume 7 of the Roemer & Schultes edition of the ‘Systema Vegetabilium’. In vol. 7(2) the Bromeliaceae are treated with six new genera from Guayana Highland and eastern Brazilian collections: Brocchinia, Cottendorfia, Dyckia, Encholirium, Hohenbergia, and Navia.

Bromelia L., Sp. pl.: 285. 1 Mai 1753. - LT.: Bromelia karatas L., Sp. pl.: 285. 1 Mai 1753, designated by Regel (in Gartenflora 17: 67. 1868). This lectotypification precedes the generally accepted lectotypification in Britton & P.Wilson (in Bot. Porto Rico 5: 133. 10 Aug 1923). This is critical because the effective type of the genus changes from Bromelia pinguin to B. karatas [previously B. plumieri (E. Morren) L.B. Sm. nom. illeg.] See Karatas. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. Named in honor of prominent Swedish medical doctor and botanist, Olof Ole Bromell (1639-1705), Latinized as Olaus Olai Bromelius. See Grant (in J. Bromeliad Soc. 43: 261-262. 1993).

French botanist Charles Plumier (1646-1704) described some of the first bromeliads known to European science (in Nova plantarum americanarum genera. 1703): "Bromelia" (2 sp.), "Caraguata" (4 sp.), "Karatas" (1 sp.), and "Renealmia" (5 sp.). When Swedish naturalist and botanist Linnaeus [Carol von Linné (1707-1778)] established binomial nomenclature in ‘Species plantarum’ (1753), he presented a conservative generic treatment. Linnaeus only adopted the names Bromelia and Renealmia from Plumier, while describing the new genus Tillandsia. This is unfortunate because it effectively relegated to synonymy two bromeliad names derived from the languages of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, Caraguata and Karatas. Linnaeus (1753) named five species of Bromelia: B. ananas (= Ananas comosus), B. karatas, B. lingulata (º Aechmea lingulata), B. nudicaulis (º Aechmea nudicaulis), and B. pinguin.

Bromelia Adans., Fam. pl. 2: 67, 527. Jul-Aug 1763, nom. illeg. non Bromelia L., Sp. pl.: 285. 1 Mai 1753. - T.: Bromelia spicata Lam., Encycl. 1: 146. 2 Dec 1783. Pitcairnia spicata (Lam.) Mez in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 392. Jan 1896. The genus Bromelia Adanson does not have the same circumscription as that of Bromelia Linnaeus. Currently considered a synonym of Pitcairnia.

Canistrum E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 23: 257. 1873. - T.: Canistrum aurantiacum E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 23: 257. 1873. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. From the Greek kanistron, a kind of basket carried on the head. Morren described the inflorescence as a flat basket of flowers similar to those carried by young girls in Athens during events such as the festival of Bacchus, as well as those carried by green vegetable growers in Morren’s home town of Liège, Belgium.

Édouard Morren (1833-1886), was a professor of botany and director of the botanical garden at the Université de Liège, Belgium from 1857-1886. Morren was the undisputed authority of the Bromeliaceae in this period, and described numerous new species in the journal he edited, ‘La Belgique Horticole’. He was preparing a much-anticipated monograph of the family when he died in 1886 at the young age of 53. These lengthy manuscripts, as well as the majority of his large collection of watercolors prepared for him at his direction were sold by his widow soon after his death to the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England. These manuscripts were studied by both Baker and Mez, who described many of Morren's unpublished new species.

Contrary to nearly every reference to the "Morren collection of watercolors", only a few sketches were actually drawn by Morren himself. Four principal artists, Cambresier, Sartorius, Stroobant, and De Tollenaere prepared the large exquisite watercolors whose style is later seen in Margaret Mee's paintings. Baker depended heavily on these paintings when preparing his ‘Handbook of the Bromeliaceae’ (1889). In fact, he uses the abbreviation "M.D." for ‘Morren Drawing’ if there was an illustration in the collection that he examined. It is unfortunate that Morren died so prematurely because his monograph certainly would have been the most comprehensive to that date, and illustrated by numerous watercolors of the finest caliber. The manuscripts and watercolors may still today be examined in the archives at Kew.

In a short period from 1886-1887, the botanical community was shaken by the deaths of three botanists who wrote extensively on the Bromeliaceae: Édouard Morren, Franz Antoine, and Heinrich Wawra von Fernsee. With the sudden loss of these important workers, Édouard François André, John Gilbert Baker, and Carl Mez took up further research on the family.

Caraguata Adans., Fam. pl. 2: 67, 532. Jul-Aug 1763, nom. illeg. º Tillandsia L., Sp. pl.: 286. 1 Mai 1753. - T.: Tillandsia utriculata L., Sp. pl.: 286. 1 Mai 1753. Adanson (1727-1806) in his renowned ‘Familles des Plantes’ (1763) attributed six genera of the modern (though then yet to be described) Bromeliaceae to the Zingiberaceae (Ananas, Bromelia, Caraguata, Hoiriri, Karatas, and Pinguin) among other varied genera such as Costus, Maranta, and Musa. Under Caraguata, Adanson placed Linnaeus' Tillandsia in synonymy. Therefore, since Tillandsia was placed in its entirety in synonymy under Caraguata, Caraguata is an obligate synonym of Tillandsia. The orthographic variant ‘Karaguata’ has often been cited, even by Adanson, but it is not a separate generic name. The genus Caraguata as interpreted by Lindley (in Bot. Reg. 13: ad t. 1068. 1827) is also not that of a different genus as suggested by Smith & Downs (in Fl. Neotrop. 14: 1275. 1979). Rather, Lindley was simply the first to adopt the name since Adanson, who in turn had adopted the name from Plumier. Plumier (in Nova plantarum americanarum genera: 10. 1703) states: "Caraguata nomen est Americanarum." [Caraguata is an American name.] The ‘cara’ of Caraguata is likely derived from the same language root as the ‘kara’ of Karatas.

Catopsis Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 1864: 10, 12. 13 Jan 1864, an avowed substitute for Tussacia Willd. ex Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 21, 99. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’), not Tussacia Willd. ex Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(1): x, 57. 1829 (phan.-incertae sedis), nor Tussacia Benth., London J. Bot. 5: 364. 1846 (Gesneriaceae). - LT.: Tillandsia nitida Hook., Exot. Fl. 3: ad t. 218. 1827, designated here. Tussacia nitida (Hook.) Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 100. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’). Catopsis nitida (Hook.) Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 1864: 21. 13 Jan 1864. Most sources erroneously cite the publication of Catopsis as from Fl. Brit. W. Ind.: 599. Oct 1864, and its type as Tillandsia nutans Sw., Prod. Veg. Ind. Occ. 56. 1788; Catopsis nutans (Sw.) Griseb., Fl. Brit. W. Ind.: 599. 1864. Nevertheless, the type can not be T. nutans as it was not an originally attributed species of Tussacia. Currently recognized in the subfam. Tillandsioideae. From the Greek kata, hanging down, and opsis, sight or appearance, which refers to the position of its seeds, where the funiculi are curved and the seeds hang down from them.

Chevaliera Gaudich. ex Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 22, 150. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’). - LT.: Chevaliera sphaerocephala Gaudich. ex Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 22, 150. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’), designated by L.B. Smith (sub Chevalieria in ING Card No. 00208. 1 Oct 1955). Aechmea sphaerocephala (Gaudich. ex Beer) Baker, J. Bot. 17: 162. 1879. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. See Smith & Kress (in Phytologia 66: 70-79. 27 Apr 1989). Named in honor of François Fulgis Chevallier (1796-1840), French botanist in Paris.

Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupré (1789-1854) was a French naturalist who collected plants while circumnavigating the globe with other naturalists from 1836-1837. When he returned, he edited the botanical portion of the account of the trip in ‘Voyage autour du monde exécuté pendant les années 1836 et 1837 sur la corvette la Bonite, commandée par M. Vaillant’. Although engravings of numerous new species of plants were published, he never completed the anticipated accompanying descriptions. Of the five new bromeliad genera among these plates, Chevaliera, Garrelia, Pironneava, Pothuava, and Quesnelia, only Garrelia and Quesnelia were validly published in the original text since they are monospecific. The other three names were invalid because they included more than one species. They remained as such until they were validated later either by Beer or Koch.

Chirripoa Suess., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 72: 293. 30 Jan 1942. - T.: Chirripoa solitaria Suess., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 72: 293. 30 Jan 1942. Guzmania polycephala Mez & Wercklé, Repert Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 14: 254. 1916. Currently considered a synonym of Guzmania. See Smith & Pittendrigh (in J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 43: 404. 1953). Named after Cerro Chirripó in the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica.

Cipuropsis Ule, Verh. Bot. Vereins Prov. Brandenburg 48: 148. 1907. - T.: Cipuropsis subandina Ule, Verh. Bot. Vereins Prov. Brandenburg 48: 148. 1907. Tillandsia subandina (Ule) Mez ex L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 98: 16. 1932. Vriesea subandina (Ule) L.B. Sm. & Pittendr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 43: 404. 1953. Currently considered a synonym of Tillandsia. Named for its resemblance (Greek opsis, sight or appearance) to members of the genus Cipura Aubl. (Iridaceae).

Cochliopetalum Beer, Flora 37: 347. 14 Jun 1854. - T.: Pitcairnia staminea Lodd., Bot. Cab. 8: ad t. 722. 1823. Cochliopetalum stamineum (Lodd.) Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 39. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’). Currently considered a synonym of Pitcairnia. From the Latin cochlear, spoon, and the Greek petalon, leaf or petal, likely as to shape of the petals.

Conanthes Raf., Fl. tellur. 4: 24. 1838 (med.) (‘1836’). - T.: Pitcairnia albiflos Herb., Bot. Mag. 53: ad t. 2642. 1826. Conanthes albiflos (Herb.) Raf., Fl. tellur. 4: 25. 1838 (med.) (‘1836’). The orthographic variant ‘Codonanthes’ has been cited, but it is not a separate generic name. Currently considered a synonym of Pitcairnia. From the Greek konos, cone, and anthos, flower, as to the shape of the inflorescence. Rafinesque (in ‘Flora Telluriana’ 1838) described four new bromeliad genera: Conanthes, Eriostax, Eucallias, and Hexalepis.

Connellia N.E. Br., Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot., ser. 2, 6: 66. Jan 1901. - LT.: Encholirion augustae R.H. Schomb., Verh. Vereins Beförd. Gartenbaues Königl. Preuss. Staaten 18: 156. 1846, designated by L.B. Smith (in ING Card No. 00254. 1 Oct 1955). Connellia augustae (R.H. Schomb.) N.E. Br., Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot., ser. 2, 6: 66. Jan 1901. Currently recognized in the subfam. Pitcairnioideae. Named in honor of the Englishman V.V. McConnell, who with J.J. Quelch collected the type and C. quelchii N.E. Br. on Mt. Roraima in Guyana.

Cottendorfia Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxiv, 1193. Oct-Dec 1830. - T.: Cottendorfia florida Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxiv, 1193. Oct-Dec 1830. Currently recognized as a monospecific genus in the subfam. Pitcairnioideae. Named in honor of German patron of the sciences, Johann Georg Cotta von Cottendorf (1796-1863). "Diximus in honorem Lib. Bar. Cotta de Cottendorf, ppll. Ord. Commend. etc., Membri Soc. Bot. Ratisb., ob eximia, quae Agriculturae patriae suae reddidit, beneficia prudentissimus Botanophilus." [Named in honor of Lib. Bar. Cotta von Cottendorf, ppll. Ord. Commend. etc., member of the Botanical Society of Ratisbon [Regensburg, Germany], the most wise botanist, on account of the outstanding agricultural things he has given back to his country.]

Cremobotrys Beer, Flora 37: 348. 14 Jun 1854, nom. illeg. º Eucallias Raf., Fl. tellur. 4: 25. 1838 (med.) (‘1836’). - T.: Bromelia zebrina Herb., Bot. Mag. 53: ad t. 2686. 1826. Billbergia zebrina (Herb.) Lindl., Bot. Reg. 13: ad t. 1068. 1827. ‘Cremobotrys zebrina’ (Herb.) Hook.f. & B.D. Jacks., Index Kewensis 1: 638. 1893 (not validly published; it is in italics, meaning it was treated as a synonym). Initially Beer did not transfer any species into Cremobotrys, but later [in Fam. Bromel.: 114. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’)] regarded the type among other species as belonging to Billbergia ‘Unterabteilung’ [subdivision] Cremobotrys. Cremobotrys is an obligate synonym of Eucallias. From the Greek cremastos, hanging, and botrys, bunch or cluster.

Cryptanthopsis Ule, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 42: 193. 1908. - T.: Cryptanthopsis saxicola Ule, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 42: 193. 1908. Orthophytum saxicola (Ule) L.B. Sm., Smithsonian Misc. Collect. 126: 34. 1955. Currently considered a synonym of Orthophytum. Named for its resemblance (Greek opsis, sight or appearance) to the genus Cryptanthus.

Cryptanthus Otto & A. Dietr., Allg. Gartenzeitung 4: 298. 17 Sep 1836, nom. cons., non Cryptanthus Osbeck, Dagb. Ostind. Resa: 215. 1757 (phan.-incertae sedis). - T.: Cryptanthus bromelioides Otto & A. Dietr., Allg. Gartenzeitung 4: 298. 17 Sep 1836. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. From the Greek krypto, hide, and anthos, flower, as to the sometimes inconspicuous inflorescence.

Deinacanthon Mez in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 12. Jan 1896. - T.: Rhodostachys urbaniana Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 182. 1 Nov 1891. Deinacanthon urbanianum (Mez) Mez in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 12. Jan 1896. Bromelia urbaniana (Mez) L.B. Sm., Phytologia 15: 174. 1967. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. From the Greek deinos, terrible, and anthos, flower, likely as to the heavily armed leaves.

Dendropogon Raf., Neogenyton: 3. 1825. - T.: Renealmia usneoides L., Sp. pl.: 287. 1 Mai 1753. Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L., Sp. pl.: Ed. 2. 411. Sep 1762. Dendropogon usneoides (L.) Raf., Fl. tellur. 4: 25. 1838 (med.) (‘1836’). Dendropogon is currently considered a synonym of Tillandsia, but has priority (over Diaphoranthema and Strepsia). From the Greek, dendron, tree, and pogon, beard, as to its (Spanish moss) appearance like a beard on a tree.

Deuterocohnia Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 430, 506. 1 Feb 1894. - T.: Dyckia longipetala Baker, Handb. Bromel.: 135. 17 Aug-15 Oct 1889. Deuterocohnia longipetala (Baker) Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 507. 1 Feb 1894. Currently recognized in the subfam. Pitcairnioideae. See Spencer & Smith (in Bradea 6: 141-146. 27 Nov 1992), Luther (in Selbyana 18: 105. 1997), and here under Abromeitiella. Named in honor of German botanist and bacteriologist Ferdinand Julius Cohn (1828-1898). Since there was already a genus Cohnia, the Greek prefix deuterios, second, was placed in front to form a new generic name. In Mez’s treatment of the Bromeliaceae in ‘Flora Brasiliensis’, he described six new genera: Deuterocohnia, Fascicularia, Gravisia, Neoglaziovia, Prantleia, and Wittmackia.

Diaphoranthema Beer, Flora 37: 349. 14 Jun 1854. - T.: Renealmia recurvata L., Sp. pl.: 287. 1 Mai 1753. Tillandsia recurvata (L.) L., Sp. pl.: Ed. 2. 410. Sep 1762. Diaphoranthema recurvata (L.) Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 156. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’). Currently considered a synonym of Tillandsia. Nevertheless, the name Dendropogon has priority over Diaphoranthema if Tillandsia subg. Diaphoranthema is recognized as a genus. From the Greek diaphoros, different, and anthemon, flower.

Disteganthus Lem., Fl. Serres Jard. Eur. 3: ad t. 227. Mai 1847. - T.: Disteganthus basi-lateralis Lem., Fl. Serres Jard. Eur. 3: ad t. 227. Mai 1847. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. From the Greek dis, two, stego, cover or sheathed, and anthos, flower.

Distiacanthus Baker, Handb. Bromel.: 13. 17 Aug-15 Oct 1889. - LT.: Bromelia scarlatina E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 31: 164. 1881, designated by L.B. Smith (in ING Card No. 00351. 1 Oct 1955). Distiacanthus scarlatinus (E. Morren) Baker, Handb. Bromel.: 13. 17 Aug-15 Oct 1889. Currently considered a synonym of Bromelia. From the Latin dissiti-, remote, and the Greek akanthos, a prickly plant, likely alluding to the spines on the leaves.

Dyckia Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxv, 1194. Oct-Dec 1830. - LT.: Dyckia densiflora Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxv, 1194. Oct-Dec 1830, designated by L.B. Smith (in ING Card No. 00365. 1 Oct 1955). Currently recognized in the subfam. Pitcairnioideae. Named in honor of German (Prussian) botanist, botanical artist and horticulturist Josef Maria Franz Anton Hubert Ignatz, Fürst und Altgraf zu Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck (1773-1861) [Prince and Earl of Salm Reifferscheid-Dyck]. "Nomen in honorem serenissimi Principis Jos. ad Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck etc. etc., qui amabili scientiae templum splendidissimum in terris suis dicavit, atque innumeris nitidissimisque thesauris locupletavit." [Name given in honor of the most serene Prince Joseph Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck, who ordered the most splendid temple of loveable science in his lands, and adorned it with most glamorous treasures.]

Echinostachys "Brongn. ex Planch., Hort. donat.: 25. 1858 (‘1854-1858’)", as listed in ‘Index nominum genericorum 1979: 595’ is not a distinct genus. See Echinostachys (in List VI: Putative fossil genera).

Edmundoa Leme, Canistrum Bromel. Mata Atl.: 42. Aug 1997. - T.: Nidularium ambiguum Wanderley & Leme, Bradea 5: 168. 1989. Edmundoa ambigua (Wanderley & Leme) Leme, Canistrum Bromel. Mata Atl.: 42. Aug 1997. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. Named in honor of Brazilian botanist Edmundo Pereira (1914-1986). Pereira spent the majority of his career at the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden. In the last ten years of his life he worked at the Herbarium Bradeanum devoted to the study of the Bromeliaceae, publishing numerous papers in the journal ‘Bradea’.

Encholirium Mart. ex Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxviii, 1233. Oct-Dec 1830. - T.: Encholirium spectabile Mart. ex Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxviii, 1233. Oct-Dec 1830. Currently recognized in the subfam. Pitcairnioideae. The orthographic variant ‘Encholirion’ has often been used in various treatments, but is not a separate generic name. From the Greek enchos, spear, and leiron, lily.

Eriostax Raf., Fl. tellur. 4: 25. 1838 (med.) (‘1836’). - T.: Eriostax glauca Raf., Fl. tellur. 4: 25. 1838 (med.) (‘1836’), nom. illeg. º Bromelia melanantha Ker-Gawl., Bot. Reg. 9: ad t. 766. 1824 = Aechmea bromeliifolia (Rudge) Baker in Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. pl. 3: 664. 1883. Tillandsia bromeliifolia Rudge, Pl. Guian.: 32. 1807. Currently considered a synonym of Aechmea. If the generic separation of Macrochordion from Aechmea is recognized, Eriostax has nomenclatural priority over Macrochordion since it includes A. bromeliifolia. From the Greek erion, wool, and staxis, dropping.

Eucallias Raf., Fl. tellur. 4: 25. 1838 (med.) (‘1836’). - T.: Eucallias versicolor Raf., Fl. tellur. 4: 25. 1838 (med.) (‘1836’), nom. illeg. º Bromelia zebrina Herb., Bot. Mag. 53: ad t. 2686. 1826. Billbergia zebrina (Herb.) Lindl., Bot. Reg. 13: ad t. 1068. 1827. Currently considered a synonym of Billbergia. Two other genera also have Bromelia zebrina as type: Cremobotrys (1854) and Helicodea (1864). From the Greek eu, true, and kalos, beautiful.

Fascicularia Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 627. 1 Feb 1894. - LT.: Bromelia bicolor Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. 3: 33. Aug 1802, designated by L.B. Smith (in ING Card No. 00413. 1 Oct 1955). Fascicularia bicolor (Ruiz & Pav.) Mez in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 9. Jan 1896. Mez described Fascicularia merely as an afterthought in a text portion of the monograph on the geography of the Bromeliaceae: "Fascicularia nov. gen. in Rhodostachya bicolor, littoralis, pitcairniifolia conditum, petalis ligulatis pollineque insignis." [The new genus Fascicularia is based on Rhodostachya bicolor, littoralis, and pitcairniifolia by its conspicuous ligulate petals and pollen.] Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. From the Latin, fasciculus, fascicle, referring to the disposition of the flowers.

Fernseea Baker, Handb. Bromel.: 19. 17 Aug-15 Oct 1889. - T.: Bromelia itatiaiae Wawra, Österr. Bot. Z. 30: 114. 1880. Fernseea itatiaiae (Wawra) Baker, Handb. Bromel.: 19. 17 Aug-15 Oct 1889. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. See E. Pereira & Moutinho (in Bradea 3: 339-348. 1983). Named in honor of Moravian-Austrian botanist and physician at Vienna, Dr. Heinrich Ritter Wawra von Fernsee (1831-1887). Wawra collected on several around-the-world expeditions as well as in Brazil accompanying European royalty, and wrote ‘Les Broméliacées brésiliennes’ (1881), and ‘Itinera principum S. Coburgi’ (1883-1888). "Named after Baron Wawra von Fernsee, who has collected and carefully described and figured this and many other of the most interesting Brazilian Bromeliaceae, and was engaged in writing a monograph of them at the time of his death." The specific epithet derives from Itatiaia, a mountain in Brazil.

Fosterella L.B. Sm., Phytologia 7: 171. 18 Apr 1960. - T.: Pitcairnia micrantha Lindl., Edward’s Bot. Reg. 29: misc. 44. 1843. Fosterella micrantha (Lindl.) L.B. Sm., Phytologia 7: 171. 18 Apr 1960. Currently recognized in the subfam. Pitcairnioideae. Named in honor of American horticulturist Mulford Bateman Foster (1888-1978), who provided Lyman B. Smith with many specimens from which numerous new species were described. The relationship between horticulturist and botanist was mutually beneficial, and Smith named numerous new species after both Mulford and his wife Racine. She was later honored with the genus Racinaea.

Garrelia Gaudich., Voy. Bonite, Bot. Atlas: t. 115. 1852. - T.: Garrelia encholirioides Gaudich., Voy. Bonite, Bot. Atlas: t. 115. 1852. Dyckia encholirioides (Gaudich.) Mez in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 507. Jan 1896. Currently considered a synonym of Dyckia. No name derivation is given., but perhaps for someone named Garrel, or from the Latin garrulus, talkative.

Glomeropitcairnia (Mez) Mez, Bull Herb. Boissier, ser. 2, 5: 232. 28 Feb 1905, based on Pitcairnia subg. Glomeropitcairnia Mez in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 463. Jan 1896. - T.: Tillandsia penduliflora Griseb., Fl. Brit. W. Ind.: 597. 1864. Pitcairnia penduliflora (Griseb.) Mez in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 463. Jan 1896. Glomeropitcairnia penduliflora (Griseb.) Mez, Bull Herb. Boissier, ser. 2, 5: 232. 28 Feb 1905. Currently recognized in the subfam. Tillandsioideae. See Gilmartin & Brown (in J. Bromeliad Soc. 36: 104-106. 1986). From the Latin glomus, ball, and the generic name Pitcairnia.

Gravisia Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 180. 1 Nov 1891. - LT.: Bromelia exsudans Lodd., Bot. Cab. 9: ad t. 801. 1824, designated by L.B. Smith (in ING Card No. 00464. 1 Oct 1955). Gravisia exsudans (Lodd.) Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 300. 15 Mai 1892 = Aechmea aquilega (Salisb.) Griseb., Fl. Brit. W. Ind.: 592. 1864. Currently considered a synonym of Aechmea. Named in honor of Belgian Jean-Joseph Auguste Gravis (1857-1937), Professor of Botany at the Université de Liège.

Greigia Regel, Gartenflora 14: 137. 1865. - T.: Bromelia sphacelata Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. 3: 32. Aug 1802. Greigia sphacelata (Ruiz & Pav.) Regel, Gartenflora 14: 137. 1865. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. Named in honor of Russian Samuel Alexeivich Greig (1827-1887). "Herrn Generalmajor von Greig… dem Präsidenten des Gartenbauvereins und einem der eifrigen Freunde und Förderer des Russischen Gartenbaues." [Mr. Major General von Greig…the President of the Horticulture Society and a zealous friend and patron of Russian horticulture.]

Guzmania Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. 3: 37. Aug 1802. - T.: Guzmania tricolor Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. 3: 37. Aug 1802. Currently recognized in the subfam. Tillandsioideae. The genus sensu Smith & Downs (1977) is polyphyletic, and in need of a careful revision. "Genus nuncupavimus D. Anastasio Guzman, Pharmacopeo industrio et sedulo plantarum, animalium, aliorumque corporum naturalium alacri per Americem peregrinationibus nostrâ memoriâ institutis, scrutatori." [We name the genus for pharmacist Master Anastasio Guzman, who diligently and attentively scrutinized plants, animals, and other natural bodies, active traveler of America, and set in our memory.]

Hechtia Klotzsch, Allg. Gartenzeitung 3: 401. 19 Dec 1835. - T.: Hechtia stenopetala Klotzsch, Allg. Gartenzeitung 3: 401. 19 Dec 1835. Currently recognized in the subfam. Pitcairnioideae. Named in honor of German Julius Gottfried Conrad Hecht (1771-1837). "Mag der Name das Andenken des Geheimen Regierungs-Rathes Herrn Julius Hecht, Ritter des rothen Adler-Ordens dritter Klasse, Mitglied mehrerer gelehrten Gefellschaften u. s. w. in Potsdam, dem zu Ehren sie genannt ist, erhalten." [This name may receive the memory of Privy Government Councilor Mr. Julius Hecht, Knight of the Third Class of the Order of the Red Eagle, member of several learned societies, etc.]

Helicodea Lem., Ill. Hort. 11: ad t. 421. 1864, nom. illeg. º Eucallias Raf., Fl. tellur. 4: 25. 1838 (med.) (‘1836’). - T.: Bromelia zebrina Herb., Bot. Mag. 53: ad t. 2686. 1826. Billbergia zebrina (Herb.) Lindl., Bot. Reg. 13: ad t. 1068. 1827. Helicodea is an obligate synonym of Eucallias. From the Greek heliktos, rolled in a helix, as to the disposition of the petals.

Hepetis Sw., Prodr.: 4, 56. Jul 1788, nom. rej. (against Pitcairnia L’Hér., Sert. Angl.: 7. Jan 1789, nom. cons.). - T.: Hepetis angustifolia Sw., Prodr.: 4, 56. Jul 1788 = Pitcairnia bromeliifolia L’Hér., Sert. Angl.: 7, pl. 11. 1788, not Pitcairnia angustifolia Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1: 401. Oct 1789. Currently considered a synonym of Pitcairnia. Possibly from the Greek hepar, liver.

Hesperogreigia Skottsb., Acta Horti Gothob. 11: 220. 1936. - T.: Greigia berteroi Skottsb., Nat. hist. Juan Fernandez 2, 2(7): 109. 1922. Hesperogreigia berteroi (Skottsb.) Skottsb., Acta Horti Gothob. 11: 220. 1936. Currently considered a synonym of Greigia. From the Greek hesperos, the evening star, and the generic name Greigia: "from the occurrence of the type species on an island west of the coast of Chile."

Hexalepis Raf., Fl. tellur. 4: 24. 1838 (med.) (‘1836’), nom. rej. (against Vriesea Lindl., Edward’s Bot. Reg. 29: ad t. 10. 7 Feb 1843, nom. cons.) º Vriesea Lindl., Edward’s Bot. Reg. 29: ad t. 10. 7 Feb 1843. - T.: Tillandsia psittacina Hook., Bot. Mag. 55: ad t. 2841. 1828. Hexalepis psittacina (Hook.) Raf., Fl. tellur. 4: 24. 1838. Vriesea psittacina (Hook.) Lindl., Edward’s Bot. Reg. 29: ad t. 10. 7 Feb 1843. Hexalepis was rejected in favor of Vriesea, and is therefore an obligate synonym. From the Greek hexas, the number six, and lepis, scale, possibly as to the six petal appendages (two on three separate petals).

Hohenbergia Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxxi, 1251. Oct-Dec 1830. - LT.: Hohenbergia stellata Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxxi, 1251. Oct-Dec 1830, designated by Britton & P.Wilson (in Bot. Porto Rico 5: 134. 10 Aug 1923). Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. "Nomen in honorem reg. alt. Principis de Würtemburg, qui nomine Hohenberg amabilem scientiam altissimo cult excoluit." [Name given in honor of his Royal Highness, the Prince of Würtemburg [a former Kingdom, now part of Baden-Württemberg, Germany], whose gave the glorious name of Hohenberg to this lovely science.]

Hohenbergiopsis L.B. Sm. & Read, Phytologia 33: 440. 1976. - T.: Hohenbergia guatemalensis L.B. Sm., Lilloa 6: 382. 1941. Hohenbergiopsis guatemalensis (L.B. Sm.) L.B. Sm. & Read, Phytologia 33: 440. 1976. Currently recognized as a monospecific genus in the subfam. Bromelioideae. Named for its resemblance (Greek opsis, sight or appearance) to the genus Hohenbergia.

Hoiriri Adans., Fam. pl. 2: 67, 584. Jul-Aug 1763, nom. rej. (against Aechmea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. prodr.: 47. Oct 1794, nom. cons.). - T.: Bromelia nudicaulis L., Sp. pl.: 286. 1 Mai 1753. Aechmea nudicaulis (L.) Griseb., Fl. Brit. W. Ind.: 593. 1864. Hoiriri was rejected against Aechmea as a taxonomic synonym, so the name may be used when considered distinct. In addition, Hoiriri has priority over Pothuava if that group is recognized. Currently considered a synonym of Aechmea. See Pothuava. Beer (in Fam. Bromel.: 211. 1856) notes that the pineapple (Ananas comosus) was called ‘Hoyriri’ by Thevenot. This name, used by the indigenous peoples of America, is likely the same name adopted by Adanson for this genus.

Hoplophytum Beer, Flora 37: 348. 14 Jun 1854. - T.: Billbergia rhodocyanea Lem., Fl. Serres Jard. Eur. 3: ad t. 207. 1847 = Billbergia fasciata Lindl., Bot. Reg. 13: ad t. 1130. 1828. Hoplophytum fasciatum (Lindl.) Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 129. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’). Currently considered a synonym of Aechmea. If accepted at the generic rank, Hoplophytum has priority over Platyaechmea. See Grant (in Phytologia 77: 99-101. 1994). From the Greek hoplon, armor or shield, and phyton, plant

Jonghea Lem., Jard. Fleur. 2: ad t. 181-182 [‘180-181’]. 1852. - T.: Jonghea splendida Lem., Jard. Fleur. 2: ad t. 181-182 [‘180-181’]. 1852 = Billbergia pyramidalis (Sims) Lindl., Bot. Reg. 13: ad t. 1068. 1827. Currently considered a synonym of Billbergia. Named in honor of distinguished Belgian horticulturist of Brussels, Jean De Jonghe (1804-1876).

Karatas Mill., Gard. Dict. abr. Ed. 4: [unpaged]. 28 Jan 1754, nom. illeg. º Bromelia L., Sp. pl.: 285. 1 Mai 1753. - T.: Bromelia karatas L., Sp. pl.: 285. 1 Mai 1753. Karatas plumieri E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 22: 131. 1872 (an avowed substitute if the genus Karatas is recognized, but impossible since Bromelia predates Karatas with the same type). Bromelia plumieri (E. Morren) L.B. Sm., Phytologia 15: 173. 1967, nom. illeg. When Miller established Karatas, he only attributed a single taxon to the genus, "Karatas foliis altissimus, angustissimis & aculeatis" (Plumier in Nova plantarum americanarum genera. 1703). Linnaeus (1753) had previously placed this polynomial into synonymy under the binomial Bromelia karatas. Therefore, if tautonyms were allowed in botanical nomenclature, the correct name for the type of this genus would be ‘Karatas karatas’. In order to avoid this, Morren proposed the new name Karatas plumieri. When Smith returned the species to Bromelia, he transferred Morren’s new name to Bromelia as Bromelia plumieri. However, B. karatas has priority over this later-named illegitimate substitute. The orthographic variant ‘Caratas’ has been cited, but it is not a separate generic name. See Smith & Downs (in Fl. Neotrop. 14: 1681. 1979). Karatas is an obligate synonym of Bromelia. "Karatas est nomen Americanarum apud Insulas Vulgare." [Karatas is the common name used by the Americans in the islands (West Indies). (Plumier in Nova plantarum americanarum genera: 10. 1703.)]

There is still today a small Miskito Indian village on the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua named Karatá. In the ‘Diccionário Miskito- Espagñol, Espagñol -Miskito’, by Marx & Heath (1992), the word ‘kara’ is the name for "Bromelia karatas plumiere", and ‘ta’ for "cape" or "point". As was explained to JRG in Karatá in March 1994 by the local people, the name of their village came from the plant ‘kara’ that grew on the "point" of their peninsula.

Lamprococcus Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 21, 103. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’). - LT.: Aechmea fulgens Brongn., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 2, 15: 371. 1841, designated by L.B. Smith (in ING Card No. 00615. 1 Oct 1955). Lamprococcus fulgens (Brongn.) Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 21, 103. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’). See Smith & Kress (in Phytologia 66: 70-79. 27 Apr 1989). Currently considered a synonym of Aechmea. From the Greek lampros, bright, and Latin coccum, berry.

Lamproconus Lem., Jard. Fleur. 2: ad t. 127. 1852. - LT.: Pitcairnia undulata Scheidw., Allg. Gartenzeitung 10: 275. 1842, designated by L.B. Smith (in ING Card No. 00616. 1 Oct 1955). Lamproconus undulatus (Scheidw.) Lem., Jard. Fleur. 2: ad t. 127. 1852. Currently considered a synonym of Pitcairnia. From the Greek lampros, bright, and konos, cone.

Lievena Regel, Gartenflora 29: 289. 1880. - T.: Lievena princeps Regel, Gartenflora 29: 289. 1880 = Quesnelia arvensis (Vell.) Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 381. 15 Mai 1892. Currently considered a synonym of Quesnelia. Named in honor of: "hohen Chef des kaiserlichen botanischen Gartens, Sr. Durchlaucht dem Fürsten Lieven, Minister der Reichsdomänen." [head of the Imperial Botanical Garden (in St. Petersburg), his Highness the Prince of Livonia (a Baltic Province later divided between Latvia and Estonia), Minister of the State Domains (of Russia).]

Lindmania Mez in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 535. Jan 1896. - LT.: Anoplophytum guianense Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 44. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’), designated by L.B. Smith (in Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser., 13(1): 510. 26 Aug 1936). Lindmania guianensis (Beer) Mez in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 535. Jan 1896. Currently recognized in the subfam. Pitcairnioideae. Named in honor of Swedish botanist Carl Axel Magnus Lindman (1856-1928), author of ‘Bromeliaceae Herbarii Regnelliani. I. Bromelieae’ (in Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 24: 1-50. 1891).

Lymania Read, J. Bromeliad Soc. 34: 201. Sep-Oct 1984. - T.: Araeococcus alvimii L.B. Sm. & Read, Phytologia 38: 139. 1977. Lymania alvimii (L.B. Sm. & Read) Read, J. Bromeliad Soc. 34: 213. Sep-Oct 1984. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. See Leme (in Bradea 4: 395-397. 1987). Named in honor of American botanist Lyman Bradford Smith (1904-1997), curator at the Smithsonian Institution and renowned monographer of the Bromeliaceae. Named that year in honor of his 80th birthday. Smith was the world authority on the taxonomy of the Bromeliaceae from roughly 1930-1986, and was a specialist of the Begoniaceae, Velloziaceae, and Xyridaceae. He was the author of Bromeliaceae treatments in Flora of Peru (1936), North American Flora (1938), Flora of Panama (1944), The Bromeliaceae of Brazil (1955), The Bromeliaceae of Colombia (1957), Flora of Guatemala (1958), The Bromeliaceae of Bolivia (1969), Flora de Venezuela (1971), and Flora of Uruguay (1971). Smith published most of his papers on the Bromeliaceae in two series. While at Harvard University he published the series ‘Studies in the Bromeliaceae’. It was reprinted in its entirety (papers I-XVII, 1930-1954) from ‘Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University’ and ‘Contributions of the United States National Herbarium’ in a single volume by Clyde Reed in 1977. Once establishing himself at the Smithsonian, Smith changed the name of the series to ‘Notes on Bromeliaceae’ and the journal to ‘Phytologia’. Clyde Reed reprinted papers (I-XXXIII, 1953-1971) in a single volume in 1971. With his collaborator R.J. Downs, Smith compiled the monumental three-volume monograph of the family for ‘Flora Neotropica’: Pitcairnioideae (1974); Tillandsioideae (1977); Bromelioideae (1979). It continues to be the best selling of the ‘Flora Neotropica’ series.

Macrochordion de Vriese, Jaarb. Kon. Ned. Maatsch. Tuinb. 1853: 14. 1853. - T.: Bromelia tinctoria Mart. in Spix & Mart., Reise Bras. 2: 554. 1828. Macrochordion tinctorium (Mart.) de Vriese, Jaarb. Kon. Ned. Maatsch. Tuinb. 1853: 14. 1853 = Aechmea bromeliifolia (Rudge) Baker in Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. pl. 3: 664. 1883. Tillandsia bromeliifolia Rudge, Pl. Guian. 32. 50. 1807. Currently considered a synonym of Aechmea. If Macrochordion is regarded as distinct from Aechmea, then the name Eriostax has priority. See Smith & Kress (in Phytologia 66: 70-79. 27 Apr 1989), and here under Eriostax. The orthographic variant ‘Macrochordium’ has often been used in various treatments, but is not a separate generic name. From the Greek makros, long, and chorde, rope.

Madvigia Liebm., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 4, 2: 373. 1854. - T.: Madvigia densiflora Liebm., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 4, 2: 373. 1854 = Cryptanthus acaulis (Lindl.) Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 75. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’). Currently considered a synonym of Cryptanthus. Named in honor of F.N. Madwig: "In honorem viri celeberrimi F.-N. Madwig, prof. Philogiae dicatum." [Dedicated in honor of the well-known man, Professor of Literature, F.-N. Madwig.]

Massangea E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 27: 59. 1877. - T.: Tillandsia musaica Linden & André, Ill. Hort. 20: 171. 1873. Massangea musaica (Linden & André) E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 27: 59. 1877. Guzmania musaica (Linden & André) Mez in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 898. Jan 1896. Currently considered a synonym of Guzmania. Named in honor of Belgian Antoine Ferdinand Joseph Massange (1831-1901), in whose greenhouses at Saint-Gilles, near Liège, the type species flowered from January-February 1877.

Meziothamnus Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 10: 575. 30 Mar 1929. - T.: Navia brevifolia Griseb., Symb. fl. argent.: 332. 1879. Meziothamnus brevifolius (Griseb.) Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 10: 575. 30 Mar 1929. Deuterocohnia brevifolia (Griseb.) M.A. Spencer & L.B. Sm., Bradea 6: 144. 27 Nov 1992. Currently considered a synonym of Deuterocohnia. Named in honor of Carl Christian Mez (1866-1944), German botanist at Breslau, Halle, and later Königsberg, Ostpreußen (East Prussia) [today Kaliningrad, Russia]. "So widme ich sie dem hervorragendsten Kenner der Bromeliaceen, C. Mez, dessen Meisterwerk ich beim Bestimmen schätzen gelernt habe." [Thus I (Harms) dedicate it (the genus) to the most distinguished authority of the Bromeliaceae, C. Mez, whose masterpiece (Monographiae phanerogamarum) I have learned to appreciate when identifying (plants).]

Mez was the author of Bromeliaceae family treatments in Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius’ (1794-1868) ‘Flora Brasiliensis’ (1894); C. de Candolle’s ‘Monographiae phanerogamarum’ (1896); and Engler’s ‘Das Pflanzenreich’ (1934-1935). Mez’s final monograph was the standard family treatment until Smith & Down’s three-volume monograph was published in the 1970’s.

Mezobromelia L.B. Sm., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 70: 151. 1935. - T.: Mezobromelia bicolor L.B. Sm., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 70: 151. 1935. Currently recognized in the subfam. Tillandsioideae. See Luther (in Bromélia 2: 3-5. 1995). Named in honor of Carl Christian Mez (1866-1944): "who has done more than any other botanist to clarify the taxonomy of the Bromeliaceae."

Misandra F. Dietr., Nachtr. Vollst. Lex. Gärtn. Bot. 5: 102. 1819, nom. illeg. [non Misandra Comm. ex Juss., Gen. pl.: 405. 1789 (Gunneraceae)] º Bonapartea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. 3: 38. Aug 1802. - T.: Bonapartea juncea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. 3: 38. Aug 1802. Misandra juncea (Ruiz & Pav.) F. Dietr., Nachtr. Vollst. Lex. Gärtn. Bot. 5: 102. 1819. Tillandsia juncea (Ruiz & Pav.) Poir. in Lam., Encycl. suppl. 5(1): 309. 1 Nov 1817. Misandra is an obligate synonym of Bonapartea. From the Greek misos, hate, and andros, man.

Mosenia Lindm., Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., ser. 2, 24: 27. 1891. - T.: Mosenia sicarius Lindm., Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., ser. 2, 24: 27. 1891 = Canistrum cyathiforme (Vell.) Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 252. 1 Nov 1891. Currently considered a synonym of Canistrum. Named in honor of its collector, Swedish botanist at Stockholm Carl Wilhelm Hjalmar Mosén (1841-1887).

Navia Mart. ex Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxv, 1195. Oct-Dec 1830. - LT.: Navia caulescens Mart. ex Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxv, 1195. Oct-Dec 1830, designated by L.B. Smith (in ING Card No. 00747. 1 Oct 1955). One species of the genus (i.e. Navia lopezii L.B. Sm., Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harvard 15: 40. 1951) has often been cited as the single exception to the rule in the family that one of its species lacked typical bromeliad trichomes. However, closer examination revealed this enigmatic species to be a member of Velloziaceae, and a new genus Araratitiyopea was established to accommodate it by Steyermark & Berry (in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 71: 297. 1984). With the removal of this extraneous species, the Bromeliaceae became even better defined. Currently recognized in the subfam. Pitcairnioideae. "Nomen in honorem ill. Equitis de Nau, Cons. int. etc., historiae naturalis et Physices cultoris praeclari, dedit ill. De Martius." [Name given in dedication by Martius in honor of the illustrious Knight of Nau, Cons. int. et., distinguished supporter of natural history and physics.]

Neoglaziovia Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 180. 1 Nov 1891. - T.: Bromelia variegata Arruda, Diss. pl. Brazil.: 7. 1810. Neoglaziovia variegata (Arruda) Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 427. 1 Feb 1894. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. Named in honor of August François Marie Glaziou (1828-1906), French architect, botanist, and superintendent of the Public Botanical Garden (Paseo Publico) of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Glaziou corresponded with Morren, Baker, and Mez sending each specimens from Brazil that they in turn described. Neoglaziovia is not a renaming of a bromeliad ‘Glaziova’. Rather, since both Glaziova Bureau, Adansonia 8: 30. 1868 (Bignoniaceae) and its illegitimate homonym Glaziova Mart. ex Drude in Mart., Fl. bras 3(2): 395. 1881 (Arecaceae) were already in existence, placing the Greek word neo, new, in front of Glaziou’s name was a simple way to form a new generic name.

Neoregelia L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 78. 1934, an avowed substitute for Regelia (Lem.) Lindm., Öfvers. Förh. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. 47: 542. 1890, nom. illeg., non Regelia Schauer, Linnaea 17: 243. 1843 (Myrtaceae). - T.: Billbergia meyendorffii Regel, Bot. Zeit. 15: 713. 16 Oct 1857. Regelia meyendorffii (Regel) Lindm. in Öfvers. Förh. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. 47: 543. 1890 = Neoregelia carolinae (Beer) L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 124: 9. 1939. Smith established the name Neoregelia to replace both the illegitimate name Regelia, and Mez’s 1896 incorrect interpretation of Aregelia. See Aregelia. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. Since Neoregelia replaces Regelia, it also honors Eduard August von Regel (1815-1892).

Neovriesia Britton in Britton & P. Wilson, Bot. Porto Rico 5: 141. 10 Aug 1923, nom. illeg. º Vriesea Lindl., Edward’s Bot. Reg. 29: ad t. 10. 7 Feb 1843. - T.: Tillandsia psittacina Hook., Bot. Mag. 55: ad t. 2841. 1828. Neovriesia is an obligate synonym of Vriesea. Although Neovriesia was established as a new name for Vriesea Lindl. 1843 (nom. cons.) (not Vriesea Hassk. 1842 (nom. rej., Scrophulariaceae), no new combination into Neovriesia was ever proposed for Tillandsia psittacina.

Neumannia Brongn., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 2, 15: 369. 1841. - T.: Neumannia imbricata Brongn., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 2, 15: 369. 1841. Pitcairnia imbricata (Brongn.) Regel, Gartenflora 17: 135. 1868. Currently considered a synonym of Pitcairnia. Named in honor of the Frenchman Neumann: "jardinier en chef des serres au Museum imperial d’histoire naturelle de Paris." [Head gardener of the greenhouses of the Imperial Museum of Natural History, Paris. (Ill. Hort. 5: 90. 1858).]

Nidularium Lem., Jard. Fleur. 4: ad t. 411; Misc.: 60. 1854. Aregelia Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 2: 698. 5 Nov 1891 was published as an avowed substitute for Nidularium, treating it as a homonym of Nidularia Bull. ex J. St.-Hil., Expos. Fam. Nat. 1: 6. 1805 (nom. rej.) (Gasteromycetes). Two other homonyms for Nidularia also exist: Nidularia Fr. in Fr. & Nordholm, Symb. gasteromyc. 1: 2. 1817 (nom. cons.) (Gasteromycetes), and Nidularia Withering, Bot. arr. Brit. pl. Ed. 2, 2: 859. Aug-Nov 1787 (nom. rej.) (Myxomycetes). - T.: Nidularium fulgens Lem., Jard. Fleur. 4: ad t. 411; Misc.: 60. 1854. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. See Aregelia. From the Greek nidulus, nest, as to the appearance of the plant as a bird’s nest.

Niveophyllum Matuda, Cact. Suc. Mex. 10: 3. 1965. - T.: Niveophyllum caeruleum Matuda, Cact. Suc. Mex. 10: 3. 1965. Hechtia caerulea (Matuda) L.B. Sm., Phytologia 24: 446. 1972. Currently considered a synonym of Hechtia. From the Latin niveus, snowy, and the Greek phyllon, leaf, as to the densely appressed white scales on the leaves.

Ochagavia Philippi, Anales Univ. Chile 13: 168. Mai 1856. - T.: Ochagavia elegans Philippi, Anales Univ. Chile 13: 168. Mai 1856. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. "Dixi in memoriam cl. Sylvestris Ochagavia, Instructionis publicae in Republica Chilensis annis 1853 et 1854 ministri." [Named in memory of the illustrious Sylvestris Ochagavia, who served as a public school teacher in Chile from 1853-1854.]

Ortgiesia Regel, Gartenflora 16: 193. 1867. - T.: Ortgiesia tillandsioides Regel, Gartenflora 16: 193. 1867 = Aechmea recurvata var. ortgiesii (Baker) Reitz, Anais Bot. Herb. "Barbosa Rodrigues" 4: 29. 1952. Currently considered a synonym of Aechmea. See Smith & Kress (in Phytologia 66: 70-79. 27 Apr 1989). Named in honor of Swiss Karl Eduard Ortgies (1829-1916). "Obergärtner am Bot. Garten im Zürich." [Head gardener at the Botanical Garden in Zürich.]

Orthopetalum Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 17, 70. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’). - LT.: Pitcairnia lanuginosa Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. 3: 35. Aug 1802, designated by L.B. Smith (in ING Card No. 00800. 1 Oct 1955). Orthopetalum lanuginosum (Ruiz & Pav.) Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 17, 70. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’). Currently considered a synonym of Pitcairnia. From the Greek orthos, straight, and petalon, leaf or petal.

Orthophytum Beer, Flora 37: 347. 14 Jun 1854. - T.: Prantleia glabra Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 258. 1 Nov 1891. Orthophytum glabrum (Mez ) Mez in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 117. Jan 1896. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. See Prantleia. When Beer described the genus Orthophytum, he neither described any new species within the genus nor transferred any taxa into it. Rather, he merely cited a specimen on which he based the generic description (Nr. 3436 Bras. Inhumaes Pohl aus dem Herbarium des Wiener Museum) [Number 3436, Bras. Inhumaes (Inhumas, Goiás, Brazil), Pohl, from the herbarium of the Vienna Museum.] Curiously, Beer did not recognize this genus in his Fam. Bromel.: 1856 (‘1857’). Mez later in Fl. bras. 3(3): 180, 257. 1 Nov 1891 described the genus Prantleia and based this name on this same collection, citing in addition a duplicate specimen seen in Brussels. Mez (in Monogr. phan. 9: 116-117. Jan 1896), realized that his Prantleia was the same as that of Beer’s Orthophytum: "Generis et a Beerio in opere de Bromeliaceis et a sequentibus neglecte nomen hic reconstituo." [I resurrect the following neglected name (Orthophytum) from Beer’s opus on the Bromeliaceae (Die Familie der Bromeliaceen).] From the Greek orthos, straight, and phyton, plant.

Pepinia Brongn. in André, Ill. Hort. 17: 32. 1870. - T.: Pitcairnia punicea Lindl. ex Hassk., Retzia Pugillus 2: 12. 1856 (non Pitcairnia punicea Scheidw., Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci. Bruxelles 9: 25. 1842). Pepinia punicea Brongn. in André, Ill. Hort. 17: 32. 1870. Previous reports of the type of Pepinia being Pitcairnia aphelandriflora Lem. in Ill. Hort. 16, Misc.: 90. 1869 or Pepinia aphelandriflora (Lem.) André in Ill. Hort. 17: 32. 1870, are incorrect. This is significant because all previous treatments of the genus have regarded P. aphelandriflora as the type, e.g. Smith & Downs (in Fl. Neotrop. 14: 244. 1974), and Varadarajan & Gilmartin (in Syst. Bot. 13: 296. 1988). Currently recognized in the subfam. Pitcairnioideae. See Luther (in Bromélia 2: 22-23. 1995). Dedicated by Brongniart in honor of Frenchman Pierre Denis Pépin (c.1802-1876): "membre de la Société impériale et centrale d'Agriculture, jardinier-en-chef du Muséum d’Histoire naturelle de Paris." [member of the Imperial and Central Society of Agriculture, head gardener of the Natural History Museum, Paris.]

Phlomostachys Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 16, 45. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’). - LT.: Puya altensteinii Link, Klotzsch, & Otto, Ic. pl. rar. 1(2): 1. 15-21 Nov 1840 (‘1841’), designated by Pfeiffer (in Nomencl. bot. 2: 680. 1873). Pitcairnia altensteinii (Link, Klotzsch, & Otto) Lem., Fl. Serres Jard. Eur. 2: ad t. 162. 1846. Phlomostachys altensteinii (Link, Klotzsch, & Otto) Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 16, 45. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’). Currently considered a synonym of Pitcairnia. From the Greek phlomos (mullein, i.e. Phlomis fruticosa, Jerusalem sage), and stachys, spike.

Pholidophyllum Vis. ex Otto, Allg. Gartenzeitung 16: 30. 22 Jan 1848. - T.: Pholidophyllum zonatum Vis. ex Otto, Allg. Gartenzeitung 16: 30. 22 Jan 1848 = Cryptanthus zonatus (Vis. ex Otto) Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 76. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’). Currently considered a synonym of Cryptanthus. From the Greek pholidos, scale, and phyllon, leaf.

Phytarrhiza Vis., Due Piante Nuove Bromel.: 6. 1854. - T.: Tillandsia duratii Vis., Nuovi Saggi Imp. Regia Accad. Sci. Padova 5: 271. 1840. Phytarrhiza duratii (Vis.) Vis., Due Piante Nuove Bromel.: 6. 1854. Publication here is a preprint of its later appearance (in Mem. Reale Ist. Veneto Sci. 5: 340. 1855). Currently considered a synonym of Tillandsia. If this group (Tillandsia subg. Phytarrhiza) is recognized as a genus, Phytarrhiza has priority over Wallisia. From the Greek phyton, plant, a, without, and rhiza, root, meaning ‘plant without roots’.

Pinguin Adans., Fam. pl. 2: 67, 591. Jul-Aug 1763. - T.: Bromelia pinguin L., Sp. pl.: 285. 1 Mai 1753. The genus Pinguin has never been adopted, and no species have ever been transferred into it. Currently considered a synonym of Bromelia. The name Pinguin derives from a language of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.

Pironneava Gaudich. ex K. Koch, Wochenschr. Vereines Beförd. Gartenbaues Königl. Preuss. Staaten 3: 86. 15 Mar 1860. - LT.: Pironneava glomerata Gaudich. ex K. Koch, Wochenschr. Vereines Beförd. Gartenbaues Königl. Preuss. Staaten 3: 338. 25 Oct 1860, designated by L.B. Smith (in ING Card No. 00861. 1 Oct 1955) = Hohenbergia augusta (Vell.) E. Morren, Catal.: 9. 1873. Currently considered a synonym of Hohenbergia. No name derivation is given, but the genus likely honors someone with the surname Pironneau.

German botanist Karl Koch (1809-1879) worked at the Botanischer Garten Berlin-Dahlem. Koch described numerous new species and genera in the journal ‘Wochenschrift des Vereines zur Beförderung des Gartenbaues in den Königlich Preussischen Staaten’ [Weekly of the Society for the Advancement of Horticulture in the Imperial Prussian States], and wrote the important work ‘Conspectus generum et subgenerum Bromeliacearum’ [Summary of the genera and subgenera of the Bromeliaceae] (1874).

Pitcairnia L’Hér., Sert. Angl.: 7. Jan 1789, nom. cons.(against Hepetis Sw., Prodr.: 4, 56. Jul 1788). - T.: Pitcairnia bromeliifolia L’Hér., Sert. Angl.: 7. Jan 1789. Currently recognized in the subfam. Pitcairnioideae. Named in honor of William Pitcairn (1711-1791), an English physician who kept a botanical garden at Islington near London during the time L’Héritier visited England (see Stafleu’s introduction to L’Héritier, Sert. Angl. reprint 2, 1963).

Pityrophyllum Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 17, 79. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’). - LT.: Tillandsia ionantha Planch., Fl. Serres Jard. Eur. 10: 101. 1855, designated by Pfeiffer (in Nomencl. bot. 2: 735. 1873). The type of the genus is not Tillandsia erubescens Schlechtendal, Linnaea 18: 427. 1844 as indicated by Smith & Downs (in Fl. Neotrop. 14: 670. 1979). Currently considered a synonym of Tillandsia. From the Greek pityron, scale, and phyllon, leaf.

Placseptalia Espinosa, Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. 23: 5. 1947. - T.: Placseptalia rebecae Espinosa, Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. 23: 5. 1947 = Ochagavia carnea (Beer) L.B. Sm. & Looser, Revista Univ. (Santiago) 18: 1078. 1934. Currently considered a synonym of Ochagavia. From the Greek plakos, something flat and wide, and the Latin septum, fence or wall. The specific epithet honors Espinosa’s colleague, Rebeca Acevedo de Vargas. "Species in honorem collegae dominae Rebeca Acevedo de Vargas, Professor Scientarum Biologicarum et botanista Musei Nationalis Chilensis Historiae Naturalis nominata." [The species is named in honor of my colleague Ms. Rebeca Acevedo de Vargas, Professor of Biological Sciences and botanist at the Chilean National Natural History Museum.]

Platyaechmea (Baker) L.B. Sm. & Kress, Phytologia 69: 272. 14 Nov (‘Oct’) 1990, based on Aechmea subg. Platyaechmea Baker, J. Bot. 17: 130. 1879. - T.: Aechmea distichantha Lem., Jard. Fleur. 3: ad t. 269. 1853. Platyaechmea distichantha (Lem.) L.B. Sm. & Kress, Phytologia 69: 272. 14 Nov (‘Oct’) 1990. Currently considered a synonym of Aechmea. If recognized at the generic rank, Hoplophytum has priority over Platyaechmea. See Smith & Kress (in Phytologia 66: 70-79. 27 Apr 1989) and Grant (in Phytologia 77: 99-101. 1994). From the Greek platys, broad, and the generic name Aechmea.

Platystachys K. Koch, Ind. Sem. Berol. 1854, App.: 11. 1855, published as an avowed substitute for Allardtia A. Dietr., Allg. Gartenzeitung 20: 241. 31 Jul 1852, treating Allardtia as a homonym of Allardia Decne. in Jacquemont, Voyage Inde Bot.: 87. ante 13 Jun 1836 (Asteraceae). - T.: Allardtia cyanea A. Dietr., Allg. Gartenzeitung 20: 241. 1852. Platystachys cyanea (A. Dietr.) K. Koch & Sello in K. Koch, Ind. Sem. Berol. 1854, App.: 11. 1855. Tillandsia cyanea (A. Dietr.) E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 29: 297. 1879. Currently considered a synonym of Tillandsia. From the Greek platys, broad, and stachys, spike.

Podaechmea (Mez) L.B. Sm. & Kress, Phytologia 69: 271. 14 Nov (‘Oct’) 1990, based on Aechmea subg. Podaechmea Mez in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 191. Jan 1896. - LT.: Pironneava lueddemanniana K. Koch, Wochenschr. Vereines Beförd. Gartenbaues Königl. Preuss. Staaten 9: 182. 1866, designated by Smith & Downs (in Fl. Neotrop. 14: 1768. 1979). Aechmea lueddemanniana (K. Koch) Mez, Pflanzenr. IV 32, 100(1): 120. 27 Nov 1934. Podaechmea lueddemanniana (K. Koch) L.B. Sm. & Kress, Phytologia 69: 271. 14 Nov (‘Oct’) 1990. Pironneava lueddemanniana, an earlier name for Aechmea caerulescens (Regel) Baker, J. Bot. 17: 227. 1879 (based on Lamprococcus caerulescens Regel, Trudy Imp. S.-Petersburgsk. Bot. Sada [Acta horti petropolitani] 1: 93. 1871), one of the species originally attributed to Aechmea subg. Podaechmea, provides the type (Art. 10.3, Greuter et al. 1994). Currently considered a synonym of Aechmea. See Smith & Kress (in Phytologia 66: 70-79. 27 Apr 1989). From the Greek podos, foot, and the generic name Aechmea.

Pogospermum Brongn., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 5, 1: 327. Jun 1864, nom. illeg. º Catopsis Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 1864: 10, 12. 13 Jan 1864. - T.: Tillandsia nitida Hook., Exot. Fl. 3: ad t. 218. 1827. Catopsis nitida (Hook.) Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 1864: 21. 13 Jan 1864. Pogospermum nitidum (Hook.) Brongn., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 5, 1: 327. Jun 1864. Previous reports of Pogospermum flavum Brongn. as the type are incorrect. Brongniart states in the protologue: "Dans le Tillandsia nitida de Hook., type de mon genre Pogospermum…" [In the Tillandsia nitida of Hooker, type of my genus Pogospermum…] Pogospermum is an obligate synonym of Catopsis. See Catopsis and Tussacia. From the Greek pogon, beard, and sperma, seed, for the unique coma on the seeds of Catopsis species.

Portea K. Koch, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 4, 6: 368. 1856. - T.: Portea kermesina K. Koch, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 4, 6: 368. 1856. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. No name derivation is given, but possibly named for Italian botanist Pietro Port (1832-1923), or from the Latin porta, gate or door.

Pothuava Gaudich. ex K. Koch, Wochenschr. Vereines Beförd. Gartenbaues Königl. Preuss. Staaten 3: 85. 15 Mar 1860, nom. illeg. º Hoiriri Adans., Fam. pl. 2: 67, 584. Jul-Aug 1763, nom. rej. (against Aechmea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. prodr.: 47. Oct 1794, nom. cons.). - T.: Bromelia nudicaulis L., Sp. pl.: 286. 1 Mai 1753. Aechmea nudicaulis (L.) Griseb., Fl. Brit. W. Ind.: 593. 1864. Pothuava nudicaulis (L.) Regel, Gartenflora 31: 291. Oct 1882. Koch validated Pothuava with a full generic description, but did not transfer any species. Since he only mentioned Hoplophytum nudicaulis, it is the obligate type of the genus. Pothuava is an obligate synonym of Hoiriri. Nevertheless, if this Aechmea segregate is recognized, the name Hoiriri has priority. See Smith & Kress (in Phytologia 66: 70-79. 27 Apr 1989). No name derivation is given, but possibly from the Greek pothos, fond desire.

Pourretia Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. prodr.: 46. Oct 1794. - LT.: Pourretia lanuginosa Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv.: 3: 33. Aug 1802, designated by L.B. Smith (in Phytologia 18: 140. 1969). Puya lanuginosa (Ruiz & Pav.) Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): 1234. Oct-Dec 1830. Currently considered a synonym of Puya. The text of Ruiz & Pavon’s 1794 work was published simultaneously in Spanish and Latin, with the left-hand column in Spanish and the right-hand column in Latin. Named in honor of Abbey Pierre André Pourret (1754-1818) of Narbonne, France. "Género dedicado al Sr. Abate Pourret, gran Arcediano del campo Aginense (vulgo du mas d’Agen) y excelente Botánico, que en Narbona ha formado, adquiriendo Plantas de todas partes con sumo gasto y actividad, un Jardin muy rico y un copiosísimo Herbário para su recreo y el de sus amigos y beneficio público." [Genus dedicated to Father Pourret, great Archdeacon of the Agen countryside [a historical region of southern France] (common masses of Agen) and excellent botanist who, acquiring plants from all over at the greatest of expense and effort, formed a very lush garden and most copious herbarium in Narbonne [France] for his leisure and that of his friends, and for public benefit.]

Prantleia Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 180, 257. 1 Nov 1891, nom. illeg. º Orthophytum Beer, Flora 37: 347. 14 Jun 1854. - T.: Prantleia glabra Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 258. 1 Nov 1891. Orthophytum glabrum (Mez) Mez in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 117. Jan 1896. Prantleia is an obligate synonym of Orthophytum. Named in honor of German (Bavarian) botanist Karl Anton Eugen Prantl (1849-1893), co-editor with Heinrich Gustav Adolf Engler (1844-1930) of such classical works as ‘Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien’ [The Natural plant families] (1887-1915) and ‘Das Pflanzenreich’ [The Plant kingdom] (1900-1953).

Prionophyllum K. Koch, Ind. Sem. Berol. 1873, App. 4: 3. 1874. - T.: Prionophyllum selloum K. Koch, Ind. Sem. Berol. 1873, App. 4: 7. 1874. Dyckia selloa (K. Koch) Baker, Handb. Bromel.: 136. 17 Aug-15 Oct 1889. Currently considered a synonym of Dyckia. From the Greek prion, saw, and phyllon, leaf, as to the serrated leaves.

Pseudaechmea L.B. Sm. & Read, Phytologia 52: 53. 1982. - T.: Pseudaechmea ambigua L.B. Sm. & Read, Phytologia 52: 53. 1982. Currently recognized as a monospecific genus in the subfam. Bromelioideae. From the Greek pseudos, false, and the generic name Aechmea.

Pseudananas (Hassl.) Harms in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Ed. 2, 15a: 153. 1930, based on Ananas sect. Pseudananas Hassl., Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 20: 280. 1919. - T.: Ananas macrodontes E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 28: 140. 1878. Pseudananas macrodontes (E. Morren) Harms in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Ed. 2, 15a: 153. 1930 = Pseudananas sagenarius (Arruda) Camargo, Rev. Agric. Piracicaba 14(7, 8): reprint p. 4. 1939. Currently recognized as a monospecific genus in the subfam. Bromelioideae. From the Greek pseudos, false, and the generic name Ananas.

Puya Molina, Sag. stor. nat. Chili: 160, 351. Oct 1782. - T.: Puya chilensis Molina, Sag. stor. nat. Chili: 160, 351. Oct 1782. Currently recognized in the subfam. Pitcairnioideae. The name is derived from the native language of the indigenous Chileans. Nevertheless, Molina gave no exact indication what the name ‘puya’ means, but it is possibly simply the common name of the plant used by the indigenous Chileans.

Quesnelia Gaudich., Voy. Bonite, Bot. Atlas: t. 54. 1842. - T.: Quesnelia rufa Gaudich., Voy. Bonite, Bot. Atlas: t. 54. 1842. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. No name derivation is given, but possibly named after French author François Alexandre Quesné (1742-1820).

Racinaea M.A Spencer & L.B. Sm., Phytologia 74: 152. 1993. - T.: Tillandsia cuspidata L.B. Sm., Phytologia 9: 252. 1963. Racinaea cuspidata (L.B. Sm.) M.A. Spencer & L.B. Sm., Phytologia 74: 153. 1993. Currently recognized in the subfam. Tillandsioideae. A complete checklist of the species currently known to comprise the genus is provided by Luther (in Selbyana 18: 117-121. 1997). Racinaea can not be "based on" Tillandsia sect. Pseudocatopsis André, Bromel. Andr.: 62, 66. Sept-Dec 1889 because its type, Tillandsia cuspidata (published in 1963) is not an original component of T. sect. Pseudocatopsis. The type of this section is Tillandsia ropalocarpa André, Énum. Bromel. 6. 13 Dec 1888. Named in honor of Racine Foster (1910-1991), co-founder with her husband Mulford Foster of the Bromeliad Society and its journal, the ‘Bulletin of the Bromeliad Society’ (1951-1970), later the ‘Journal of the Bromeliad Society’ (1971+).

Regelia (Lem.) Lindm., Öfvers. Förh. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. 47: 542. 1890, nom. illeg., based on Nidularium sect. Regelia Lem., Ill. Hort. 7: ad t. 245. 1860 (non Regelia Schauer, Linnaea 17: 243. 1843) º Neoregelia L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 78. 1934. - T.: Billbergia meyendorffii Regel, Bot. Zeit. 15: 713. 16 Oct 1857. Regelia meyendorffii (Regel) Lindm. in Öfvers. Förh. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. 47: 543. 1890 = Neoregelia carolinae (Beer) L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 124: 9. 1939. Regelia is an obligate synonym of Neoregelia. Named in honor of German (Thuringian) botanist Eduard August von Regel (1815-1892), director of the Botanical Garden of St. Petersburg, Russia: "…en honneur d’un confrère qui a su joindre à un dégré éminent l’art de l’horticulture à la science proprement dite. (Lem., Ill. Hort. 7: ad. t. 245. 1860)" […in honor of a colleague who to an eminent degree has joined the art of horticulture with that of science itself.] From 1852-1884 Regel was the editor of ‘Gartenflora’ (Allgemeine Monatsschrift für deutsche, russische und schweizerische Garten-und Blumenkunde und Organ des Russischen Gartenbau-Vereins in St. Petersburg) [Garden Flora (General monthly for German, Russian and Swiss garden and flower knowledge, and Journal of the Russian Horticultural Society of St. Petersburg]. Regel published extensively on the Bromeliaceae, but did not compose any single major work on the family.

Renealmia L., Sp. pl.: 286. 1 Mai 1753, nom. rej. (against Renealmia L.f., Suppl. Pl.: 7, 79. Apr 1782, nom. cons., Zingiberaceae). - LT.: Renealmia paniculata L., Sp. pl.: 286. 1 Mai 1753, designated by L.B. Smith (in ING Card No. 06039. 22 Jul 1958). Tillandsia paniculata (L.) L., Sp. pl.: ed 2. 410. Sep 1762. In the first edition of ‘Species plantarum’ (1753), Linnaeus named five species of Renealmia: R. monostachia (º Guzmania monostachia), R. paniculata (º Tillandsia paniculata), R. polystachia (º T. polystachia), R. recurvata (º T. recurvata), and R. usneoides (º T. usneoides). However, in the second edition (1762), Linnaeus reduced Renealmia synonymy under Tillandsia, and transferred all its species there. His son, Carl von Linné filius (1741-1783) employed the name Renealmia for a genus of gingers, and it is in this sense that the name Renealmia has been conserved. Named in honor of French botanist and physician Paul Reneaulme (1560-1624), of Blois, France. "Clarissimus D. Paulus Renealmus Blesensis, D. M. Medicinae theoricae, practicae & chymicae peritissimus, ac in Botanicis versatissimus." [The illustrious Mr. Paul Reneaulme of Blois (France), Doctor of Theoretical Medicine, most knowledgeable in practical chemistry, and well versed in botany.]

Rhodostachys Philippi, Linnaea 29: 57. Feb-Mar 1858. - T.: Rhodostachys andina Philippi, Linnaea 29: 57. Feb-Mar 1858 = Ochagavia carnea (Beer) L.B. Sm. & Looser, Revista Univ. (Santiago) 18: 1078. 1934. Currently considered a synonym of Ochagavia. From the Greek rhodon, red, and stachys, spike.

Ronnbergia E. Morren & André, Ill. Hort. 21: 120. 1874. - T.: Ronnbergia morreniana Linden & André, Ill. Hort. 21: 120. 1874. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. Named in honor of Belgian Auguste Ronnberg: "Directeur de l’Agriculture et de l’Horticulture au ministère de l’Intérieur de Belgique." [Director of Agriculture and Horticulture at the Ministry of the Interior of Belgium.]

Ruckia Regel, Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 1866: Suppl. 28. Feb-Dec 1868 (‘1867’); Gartenflora 17: 65. Mar 1868. - T.: Ruckia ellemetii Regel, Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 1866: Suppl. 28. Feb-Dec 1868 (‘1867’); Gartenflora 17: 65. Mar 1868 = Ochagavia carnea (Beer) L.B. Sm. & Looser, Revista Univ. (Santiago) 18: 1078. 1934. Currently considered a synonym of Ochagavia. Named in honor of the Russian: "...Herrn Hofgärtner Ruck...Garten Sr. kaiserlichen Hoheit des Grossfürsten Constantin-Nicolajewitsch zu Strelna." […head gardener Mr. Ruck… (of the) garden of his Imperial Highness, Grand Duke Constantine Nikolaevich zu Strelna (son of Czar Nicholas I, brother of Czar Alexander II).]

Schlumbergeria E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 28: 311. 1878, nom. illeg. (non Schlumbergera Lem., Ill. Hort. 5:24. 1858, Cactaceae). - T.: Schlumbergeria roezlii E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 28: 311. 1878. Guzmania roezlii (E. Morren) Mez in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 948. Jan 1896. The name Schlumbergeria E. Morren [non Schlumbergera Lem. = Zygocactus, the Christmas cactus] has been incorrectly cited as published in Belgique Hort. 33: 46. 1883, and its type incorrectly reported as Massangea morreniana by Smith & Downs (in Fl. Neotrop. 14: 1275. 1977). That paper is simply a paper on the transfer of Massangea morreniana to Schlumbergeria. This revelation is significant because S. roezlii is the actual type of the genus. If this group is resurrected to the generic rank, it requires a new name since its predating homonym Schlumbergera Lem. (Cactaceae) has priority. Currently considered a synonym of Guzmania. Named in honor of P. Schlumberger, of Anthieux castle near Rouen, France where the plants flowered from August-September 1873.

Sincoraea Ule, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 42: 191. 1908. - T.: Sincoraea amoena Ule, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 42: 191. 1908. Orthophytum amoenum (Ule) L.B. Sm., Smithsonian Misc. Collect. 126: 33. 1955. Currently considered a synonym of Orthophytum. Named after the mountain Serra do Sincorá, Bahia, Brazil, where the type was collected.

Sodiroa André, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 24: 167. 1877. - LT.: Sodiroa graminifolia André ex Baker in J. Bot. 25: 54. 1887, designated by L.B. Smith (in ING Card No. 02895. 19 Feb 1957). Guzmania graminifolia (André ex Baker) L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 74. 1934. When André described the genus, he did not officially place any species in it, but noted two names for which he hoped to provide descriptions later: S. graminifolia and S. caricifolia. Unfortunately, he never published the names himself, though Baker later validated them. Currently considered a synonym of Guzmania. Named in honor of Italian botanist and clergyman Luis (Aloysius, Luigi) Sodiro (1836-1909), who according to Baker (in J. Bot. 25: 53. 1887) worked in Ecuador. "Father Sodiro, whose name is familiar to the readers of the Journal [J. Bot.] through the numerous new ferns he has discovered in the Andes of Ecuador."

Steyerbromelia L.B. Sm., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 73: 699. 30 Mar 1987 (‘1986’). - T.: Steyerbromelia discolor L.B. Sm. & H. Rob., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 73: 699. 30 Mar 1987 (‘1986’). When Steyerbromelia was originally prepared for publication (in Acta Bot. Venez. 14(3): 8. 1984), it was intended to be monospecific with S. discolor as the type. However, a second species, S. deflexa, was added late in the manuscript process and the genus was published without specified designation of the type. Therefore, Steyerbromelia was invalid until the next publication appeared with specific mention of its type (Art. 37.1, Greuter et al. 1994). Currently recognized in the subfam. Pitcairnioideae. Named in honor of American botanist Julian A. Steyermark (1909-1988), one of the world’s most prolific plant collectors, author of the ‘Flora of Missouri’ (1963), and editor of the ‘Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana’ (1995+ ).

Strepsia (Nutt.) Steud., Nomencl. bot. Ed. 2, 2: 645. 1841, nom. illeg., based on Tillandsia sect. Strepsia Nutt., Gen. N. Amer. pl. 1: 208. 1818 º Dendropogon Raf., Neogenyton: 3. 1825. - T.: Renealmia usneoides L., Sp. pl.: 287. 1 Mai 1753. Strepsia usneoides (L.) Steud., Nomencl. bot. Ed. 2, 2: 645. 1841. Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L., Sp. pl.: Ed. 2. 411. Sep 1762. Strepsia is an obligate synonym of Dendropogon. From the Greek strepsis, turning, or twisting, as to the twisting nature of pendent Spanish moss.

Streptocalyx Beer, Flora 37: 348. 14 Jun 1854. - T.: Streptocalyx poeppigii Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 141. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’). When Beer established Streptocalyx, he did not include any species within the genus, but merely cited a Poeppig specimen from which the description was taken. Later (1856) he defined the genus to contain a single species, naming it S. poeppigii after its collector, Eduard Friedrich Poeppig (1798-1868). Currently considered a synonym of Aechmea. See Smith & Spencer (in Phytologia 72: 96-98. 1992). From the Greek strepsis, turning, or twisting, and kalyx, calyx.

Thecophyllum André, Bromel. Andr.: 107. 1889. - LT.: Thecophyllum wittmackii André, Bromel. Andr.: 107. 1889, designated by Britton & Wilson (in Bot. Porto Rico 5: 143. 10 Aug 1923). Guzmania wittmackii (André) Mez in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 921. Jan 1896. The later designation of Thecophyllum poortmanii as the lectotype of the genus by Smith & Downs (in Fl. Neotrop. 14: 1275. 1977) is incorrect. Currently considered a synonym of Guzmania. The genus Thecophyllum sensu Mez (1896) & (1935), with notable exception to its type, is largely equal to that of Werauhia. From the Greek theke, envelope or sheath and phyllon, leaf, as to the large bracts of the inflorescence. The change in type removes the stigma previously associated with the genus, making the name available if a segregate is removed from Guzmania.

Tillandsia L., Sp. pl.: 286. 1 Mai 1753. - LT.: Tillandsia utriculata L., Sp. pl.: 286. 1 Mai 1753, designated by Britton & Millspaugh (in Bahama fl. 64. 26 Jun 1920). Currently recognized in the subfam. Tillandsioideae. The genus sensu Smith & Downs (1977) comprises several distinct generic entities, and is in need of a careful revision. In ‘Species plantarum’ (1753), Linnaeus named four species of Tillandsia: T. lingulata (º Guzmania lingulata), T. serrata (º Aechmea serrata), T. tenuifolia, and T. utriculata. Named in honor of Swedish physician and botanist Elias Erici Tillandz (originally Tillander) (1640-1693), a professor in Åbo (Turku) Finland and Uppsala, Sweden. His surname derives from the Swedish ‘till-lands’ [by land, or on land]. Fernald (in Gray’s Manual of Botany, Ed. 8: 391. 1950) notes that Tillandz: "...as a student crossing directly from Stockholm [to Turku], was so seasick that he returned to Stockholm by walking more than 1,000 miles around the Gulf of Bothnia [the gulf between Finland and Sweden] and hence assumed his surname (by land)." Linnaeus named the genus after Tillandz, because he thought that it too did not like water.

Tussacia Willd. ex Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 21, 99, 174-175. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’), nom. illeg. [non Tussacia Willd. ex Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(1): x, 57. 1829 (phan.-incertae sedis), nec Tussacia Benth., London J. Bot. 5: 364. 1846 (Gesneriaceae)] º Catopsis Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 1864: 10, 12. 13 Jan 1864. Catopsis was published as an avowed substitute for Tussacia Willd. ex Beer (1856) because it is considered a homonym of both Tussacia Willd. ex Schult. & Schult.f. (1829) and Tussacia Benth. (1846). - LT.: Tillandsia nitida Hook., Exot. Fl. 3: ad t. 218. 1827, designated here. Tussacia nitida (Hook.) Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 100. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’). Catopsis nitida (Hook.) Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 1864: 21. 13 Jan 1864. The lectotypification of Tussacia here is necessary because the previously accepted type of the genus, Tillandsia nutans (i.e. sensu Smith & Downs in Fl. Neotrop. 14: 1366. 1977) is not an original element of Tussacia. There are four species of Tussacia listed by Beer [in Fam. Bromel.: 99-101. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’)] from which to choose a lectotype: Tussacia fulgens, T. nitida, T. sessiliflora, and T. vitellina. Since T. fulgens and T. vitellina are in synonymy under Catopsis nutans, T. nitida is chosen as the lectotype not only because it is a well-established and currently recognized name, but since the type of Pogospermum is T. nitida, Pogospermum becomes an obligate synonym of Tussacia/Catopsis. Beer was also apparently unaware of the presence of the earlier validation of Tussacia by Schultes. In any case, Beer’s circumscription of Tussacia is not the same as that of Schultes, and therefore the name is recognized as a later homonym. Accordingly, Grisebach proposed Catopsis as a new name to replace Tussacia Willd. ex Beer. Tussacia is an obligate synonym of Catopsis. Named in honor of François Richard chevalier de Tussac (1751-1837), French colonial botanist in the West Indies, especially Martinique, Haiti and Jamaica.

Ursulaea Read & H.U. Baensch, J. Bromeliad Soc. 44: 206. 1994. - T.: Aechmea mcvaughii L.B. Sm., Phytologia 10: 481. 1964. Ursulaea mcvaughii (L.B. Sm.) Read & H.U. Baensch, J. Bromeliad Soc. 44: 107. 1994. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. Named in honor of Ursula Baensch, co-author with her husband of the book ‘Blühende Bromelien’ (Sep 1994); ‘Blooming Bromeliads’ (Nov 1994).

Vriesea Lindl., Edward’s Bot. Reg. 29: ad t. 10. 7 Feb 1843, (‘Vriesia’), nom. cons. [against Hexalepis Raf., Fl. tellur. 4: 24. 1838 (med.) (‘1836’)], non Vriesea Hassk., Flora 25. Beibl.: 27. 1842, Scrophulariaceae). - T.: Tillandsia psittacina Hook., Bot. Mag. 55: ad t. 2841. 1828. Vriesea psittacina (Hook.) Lindl., Edward’s Bot. Reg. 29: ad t. 10. 7 Feb 1843. Currently recognized in the subfam. Tillandsioideae. The conservation of Vriesea over Hexalepis effectively conserved not only the corrected orthography of Beer (1856) (over the original Vriesia), but protected the name from the earlier homonym Vriesea Hassk. (1842) (Scrophulariaceae), and from a later renaming to Neovriesia by Britton (1923). Named in honor of Dutch botanist and physician Willem Hendrik de Vriese (1806-1862), of Leiden, The Netherlands.

The orthographic variant ‘Vrieseida’ cited by Rojas Acosta (in Cat. Hist. Nat. Corrientes 85. 1897) is not a separate generic name, rather a nom. nud. Therefore, its recognition is not warranted, and should be removed from any listing of generic names.

Wallisia (Regel) E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 20: 97. 1870, based on Tillandsia sect. Wallisia Regel, Gartenflora 18: 193. Jul-Aug 1869. - T.: Tillandsia lindenii Regel, Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 1868: 92 [not seen]. Mar 1869; Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 5, 10: 382. Aug 1869; Tillandsia lindeniana Regel, Gartenflora 18: 193. Jul-Aug 1869, nom. illeg., (non Tillandsia lindenii E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 19: 321. Nov-Dec 1869 = Tillandsia cyanea K. Koch, Wochenschr. Vereines Beförd. Gartenbaues Königl. Preuss. Staaten 10: 140. 4 Mai 1867.) No combination into Wallisia was ever proposed for Tillandsia lindenii Regel, (non Wallisia lindenii (E. Morren) E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 20: 102. 1870, based on Tillandsia lindenii E. Morren.) Currently considered a synonym of Tillandsia. Nevertheless, Phytarrhiza has priority over Wallisia if Tillandsia subg. Phytarrhiza is elevated to the rank of genus. Named in honor of Gustav Wallis (1830-1878), German gardener and botanical explorer in Central and South America who collected the plant in Brazil.

Werauhia J.R. Grant, Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt 91: 28. 1995. - T.: Tillandsia gladioliflora H. Wendl., Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 19: 31. 1863. Werauhia gladioliflora (H. Wendl.) J.R. Grant, Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt 91: 31. 1995. Currently recognized in the subfam. Tillandsioideae. See Grant (in Bromélia 4: 28-39. 1997), and Luther (in Selbyana 18: 128-133. 1997.) Named in honor of German botanist Prof. Dr. Werner Rauh (1912- ), Institut für Systematische Botanik und Pflanzengeographie, Universität Heidelberg, Germany.

Rauh has published many articles on bromeliads in his series ‘Bromelienstudien, Neue und wenig bekannte Arten aus Peru und anderen Ländern’ [Bromeliad studies, new and little known species from Peru and other countries] published in ‘Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt’ [Tropical and Subtropical Plant World]. Three of his important bromeliad books are: ‘Bromelien für Zimmer und Gewächshaus. Band 1: Die Tillandsioideen’ (1970) [Bromeliads for Room and Greenhouse. Vol. 1: The Tillandsioideae], ‘Bromelien für Zimmer und Gewächshaus. Band 2: Vol. 2 Bromelioideen und Pitcairnioideen’ (1973) [Bromeliads for Room and Greenhouse. Vol. 2 Bromelioideae and Pitcairnioideae], and ‘Bromelien. Tillandsien und andere kulturwurdige Bromelien’ (1990) [Bromeliads. Tillandsias and other bromeliads worthy of cultivation.]

Willrussellia A. Chev., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 84: 503. 1938 (‘1937’). - T.: Willrussellia feliciana A. Chev., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 84: 503. 1938 (‘1937’). Pitcairnia feliciana (A. Chev.) Harms & Mildbr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 14: 118. 30 Mar 1938. Currently considered a synonym of Pitcairnia. When this taxon was originally found in Guinée [French Guinea, or Guinea] in West Africa, it was described as a new species in a new genus in a new subtribe of the Liliaceae. Careful reconsideration a few months later revealed it to be a continental range extension of the previously unknown family Bromeliaceae to Africa. This species of Pitcairnia is the only native bromeliad known to occur outside the Americas. The genus was named in honor of William Russell: "chef de travaux honoraire de Botanique de la Faculté des Sciences de Paris" [honorary head of botanical works of the Faculty of Sciences, Paris]. The specific epithet honors its collector, Henri Jacques-Félix, Nogent-sur-Marne, France, specialist of African Melastomataceae, affiliated with the Musée National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France. According to Jacques-Félix (pers. comm. 10 Oct 1997) Russell worked with Chevalier, and prepared a cursory description of the foliar anatomy of the new species. Through their friendship, Chevalier dedicated the genus Willrussellia to Russell.

Wittmackia Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 180, 274. 1 Nov 1891. - LT.: Bromelia lingulata L., Sp. pl.: 285. 1 Mai 1753, designated by L.B. Smith (in ING Card No. 03491. 16 Jul 1957). Aechmea lingulata (L.) Baker, J. Bot. 17: 164. 1879. Wittmackia lingulata (L.) Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 275. 1 Nov 1891. Currently considered a synonym of Aechmea. Named in honor of German botanist Marx Carl Ludwig Wittmack (1839-1929), author of the bromeliad treatment in Engler’s ‘Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien’ Ed. 1, II. Teil, 4 Abteilung: 32-59. 1887-1888.

Wittrockia Lindm., Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., ser. 2, 24: 20. 1891. - T.: Wittrockia superba Lindm., Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., ser. 2, 24: 20. 1891. Currently recognized in the subfam. Bromelioideae. Named in honor of Swedish botanist Veit Brecher Wittrock (1839-1914), of the Botanical Museum, Stockholm.


LIST II: INVALID NAMES

The names listed here are done merely for complete historical documentation, and their listing does not indicate validation or publication. Names that occur in synonymy are invalid under Art 34.1(c) (Greuter et al. 1994).

‘Amalia’ Endl., Gen. pl.: 183. Jun 1837, nom. nud. This name occurs in synonymy under Tillandsia. No name derivation is given.

‘Devillea’ Bertero ex Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxvii. Oct-Dec 1830, nom. nud. This name occurs in synonymy under Caraguata berteroniana (Guzmania berteroniana). No name derivation is given.

‘Disquamia’ Lem., Jard. Fleur. 3: ad t. 269. 1853, nom. nud. This name occurs in synonymy under Aechmea distichantha. See Grant (in Phytologia 77: 99-101. 1994). From the Latin dis, two, and squama, scale, as to the two petal appendages on each petal.

‘Gemellaria’ Pinell ex Lem., Ill. Hort. 2: Misc. 13. 1855, nom. nud.; Antoine, Phyto-Iconogr. Bromel. 44-45. 1884, nom. nud. This name occurs in synonymy under Nidularium meyendorffii, and Karatas innocentii respectively. From the Latin gemellus, twin. "Gemellaria von gemellus, Zwilling, in Bezug auf die Doppelerscheinung zweier Individuen, in einem." [Gemellaria from gemellus, twins, regarding the double appearance of two individuals in one. (Antoine, Phyto-Iconogr. Bromel. 44-45. 1884).]

Austrian horticulturist Franz Antoine, Jr. (1815-1886) was the director of the Schönbrunn Gardens near Vienna, Austria. He is the author of the important work ‘Phyto-Iconographie der Bromeliaceen des kaiserlichen Hofburg-Gartens in Wien’ [Plant illustrations of bromeliads from the Imperial Court Gardens in Vienna] (1884).

‘Libonia’ Lem., Ill. Hort. 2: ad t. 48. 1855, nom. nud. This name occurs in synonymy under Billbergia marmorata. It was often the style of Lemaire and others, to suggest a new generic name for a new or exotic species he was describing in case it might prove at some later point to be worthy of generic status. "Elle [Billbergia marmorata] est tellement distincte dans ce genre, que vraisonablement elle pourra plus tard devenir le type d’un genre nouveau, que nous proposons ici sous le nom de Libonia." [She [Billbergia marmorata] is so distinct in this genus that she could probably later become the type of a new genus that we propose here under the name Libonia.] Nevertheless, in this case as in others, since he did not accept the name at the time of original publication, it was not validly published (Art 34.1, Greuter et al. 1994). Named in honor of Mathieu Libon, who collected live plants in Brazil from which this description was based for his patron, De Jonghe of Brussels, Belgium.

‘Melinonia’ Brongn. ex E. Morren, Cat. Bromél. 11. Oct 1873, nom. nud. This name was included in Morren's list of species cultivated at the botanical garden at the Université de Liège, Belgium, but included no description. No name derivation is given, but possibly from the Latin melinus, quince-yellow or honey.

‘Spirastigma’ L’Hér. ex Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxx. Oct-Dec, nom. nud. This name occurs in synonymy under Pitcairnia. From the Greek speira, coil or twist, and stigma, as to the structure the stigma.


LIST III: A SYNONYMIZED CHECKLIST OF THE GENERA OF THE BROMELIACEAE

This list summarizes the currently accepted taxonomy and its accompanying nomenclature of the genera (non-hybrid, non-fossil, and only validly published names) of the Bromeliaceae. Presently, 56 genera are accepted, and 77 names are recognized in synonymy.

Acanthostachys Klotzsch in Link, Klotzsch & Otto, Ic. pl. rar. 1(2): 21. 15-21 Nov 1840 (‘1841’).

Aechmea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. prodr.: 47. Oct 1794, nom. cons.
  = Eriostax Raf., Fl. tellur. 4: 25. 1838 (med.) (‘1836’).
      = Macrochordion de Vriese, Jaarb. Kon. Ned. Maatsch. Tuinb. 1853: 14. 1853.
  = Gravisia Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 180. 1 Nov 1891.
  = Hoiriri Adans., Fam. pl. 2: 67, 584. Jul-Aug 1763, nom. rej.
      º Pothuava Gaudich. ex K. Koch, Wochenschr. Vereines Beförd. Gartenbaues Königl. Preuss. Staaten 3: 85. 15 Mar 1860, nom. illeg.
  = Hoplophytum Beer, Flora 37: 348. 14 Jun 1854.
      = Platyaechmea (Baker) L.B. Sm. & Kress, Phytologia 69: 272. 14 Nov (‘Oct’) 1990.
  = Lamprococcus Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 21, 103. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’).
  = Ortgiesia Regel, Gartenflora 16: 193. 1867.
  = Podaechmea (Mez) L.B. Sm. & Kress, Phytologia 69: 271. 14 Nov (‘Oct’) 1990.
  = Streptocalyx Beer, Flora 37: 348. 14 Jun 1854.
  = Wittmackia Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 180, 274. 1 Nov 1891.

Alcantarea (E. Morren ex Mez) Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 10: 802. 30 Dec 1929.

Ananas Mill., Gard. Dict. abr. Ed. 4: [unpaged]. 28 Jan 1754.

Androlepis Brongn. ex Houllet, Rev. Hort. 42: 12. 1870.

Araeococcus Brongn., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 2, 15: 370. 1841.

Ayensua L.B. Sm., Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 18: 29. Jun 1969.

Billbergia Thunb., Pl. bras. 3: 30. 5 Jun 1821.
  = Anacyclia Hoffmanns., Preiss-Verzeichn. Pflanzen.: 10. 1833.
  = Eucallias Raf., Fl. tellur. 4: 25. 1838 (med.) (‘1836’).
      º Cremobotrys Beer, Flora 37: 348. 14 Jun 1854, nom. illeg.
      º Helicodea Lem., Ill. Hort. 11: ad t. 421. 1864, nom. illeg.
  = Jonghea Lem., Jard. Fleur. 2: ad t. 181-182 [‘180-181’]. 1852.

Brewcaria L.B. Sm., Steyerm. & H. Rob., Acta Bot. Venez. 14(3): 10. Jun-Dec 1984.

Brocchinia Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxx, 1250. Oct-Dec 1830.

Bromelia L., Sp. pl.: 285. 1 Mai 1753.
  = Agallostachys Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 16, 35. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’).
  = Distiacanthus Baker, Handb. Bromel.: 13. 17 Aug-15 Oct 1889.
  º Karatas Mill., Gard. Dict. abr. Ed. 4: [unpaged]. 28 Jan 1754, nom. illeg.
  = Pinguin Adans., Fam. pl. 2: 67, 591. Jul-Aug 1763.

Canistrum E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 23: 257. 1873.
  = Mosenia Lindm., Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., ser. 2, 24: 27. 1891.

Catopsis Griseb., Nachr. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Georg-Augusts-Univ. 1864: 10, 12. 13 Jan 1864.
  º Pogospermum Brongn., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 5, 1: 327. Jun 1864, nom. illeg.
  º Tussacia Willd. ex Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 21, 99. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’), nom. illeg.

Chevaliera Gaudich. ex Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 22, 150. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’).

Connellia N.E. Br., Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot., ser. 2, 6: 66. Jan 1901.

Cottendorfia Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxiv, 1193. Oct-Dec 1830.

Cryptanthus Otto & A. Dietr., Allg. Gartenzeitung 4: 298. 17 Sep 1836, nom. cons.
  = Madvigia Liebm., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 4, 2: 373. 1854.
  = Pholidophyllum Vis. ex Otto, Allg. Gartenzeitung 16: 30. 22 Jan 1848.

Deinacanthon Mez in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 12. Jan 1896.

Deuterocohnia Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 430, 506. 1 Feb 1894.
  = Abromeitiella Mez, Bot. Arch. 19: 460. 1 Sep 1927.
  = Meziothamnus Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 10: 575. 30 Mar 1929.

Disteganthus Lem., Fl. Serres Jard. Eur. 3: ad t. 227. Mai 1847.

Dyckia Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxv, 1194. Oct-Dec 1830.
  = Garrelia Gaudich., Voy. Bonite, Bot. Atlas: t. 115. 1852.
  = Prionophyllum K. Koch, Ind. Sem. Berol. 1873, App. 4: 3. 1874.

Edmundoa Leme, Canistrum Bromel. Mata Atl.: 42. Aug 1997

Encholirium Mart. ex Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxviii, 1233. Oct-Dec 1830.

Fascicularia Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 627. 1 Feb 1894.

Fernseea Baker, Handb. Bromel.: 19. 17 Aug-15 Oct 1889.

Fosterella L.B. Sm., Phytologia 7: 171. 18 Apr 1960.

Glomeropitcairnia (Mez) Mez, Bull Herb. Boissier, ser. 2, 5: 232. 28 Feb 1905.

Greigia Regel, Gartenflora 14: 137. 1865.
  = Hesperogreigia Skottsb., Acta Horti Gothob. 11: 220. 1936.

Guzmania Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. 3: 37. Aug 1802.
  = Chirripoa Suess., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 72: 293. 30 Jan 1942.
  = Massangea E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 27: 59. 1877.
  = Schlumbergeria E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 28: 311. 1878, nom. illeg.
  = Sodiroa André, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 24: 167. 1877.
  = Thecophyllum André, Bromel. Andr.: 107. 1889.

Hechtia Klotzsch, Allg. Gartenzeitung 3: 401. 19 Dec 1835.
  = Bakerantha L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 72. 6 Aug 1934.
      º Bakeria André, Rev. Hort. 61: 84. 1889, nom. illeg.
  = Niveophyllum Matuda, Cact. Suc. Mex. 10: 3. 1965.

Hohenbergia Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxxi, 1251. Oct-Dec 1830.
  = Pironneava Gaudich. ex K. Koch, Wochenschr. Vereines Beförd. Gartenbaues Königl. Preuss. Staaten 3: 86. 15 Mar 1860.

Hohenbergiopsis L.B. Sm. & Read, Phytologia 33: 440. 1976.

Lindmania Mez in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 535. Jan 1896.

Lymania Read, J. Bromeliad Soc. 34: 201. Sep-Oct 1984.

Mezobromelia L.B. Sm., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 70: 151. 1935.

Navia Mart. ex Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxv, 1195. Oct-Dec 1830.

Neoglaziovia Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 180. 1 Nov 1891.

Neoregelia L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 78. 1934.
  º Regelia (Lem.) Lindm., Öfvers. Förh. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. 47: 542. 1890, nom. illeg.

Nidularium Lem., Jard. Fleur. 4: ad t. 411; Misc.: 60. 1854.
  º Aregelia Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 2: 698. 5 Nov 1891, nom. illeg.
  = Andrea Mez in C. DC., Monogr. phan. 9: 114. Jan 1896.

Ochagavia Philippi, Anales Univ. Chile 13: 168. Mai 1856.
  = Placseptalia Espinosa, Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. 23: 5. 1947.
  = Rhodostachys Philippi, Linnaea 29: 57. Feb-Mar 1858.
  = Ruckia Regel, Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 1866: Suppl. 28. Feb-Dec 1868 (‘1867’); Gartenflora 17: 65. Mar 1868.

Orthophytum Beer, Flora 37: 347. 14 Jun 1854.
  = Cryptanthopsis Ule, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 42: 193. 1908.
  º Prantleia Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 180, 257. 1 Nov 1891, nom. illeg.
  = Sincoraea Ule, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 42: 191. 1908.

Pepinia Brongn. in André, Ill. Hort. 17: 32. 1870.

Pitcairnia L’Hér., Sert. Angl.: 7. Jan 1789, nom. cons.
  = Bromelia Adans., Fam. pl. 2: 67, 527. Jul-Aug 1763, nom. illeg.
  = Cochliopetalum Beer, Flora 37: 347. 14 Jun 1854.
  = Conanthes Raf., Fl. tellur. 4: 24. 1838 (med.) (‘1836’).
  = Hepetis Sw., Prodr.: 4, 56. Jul 1788, nom. rej.
  = Lamproconus Lem., Jard. Fleur. 2: ad t. 127. 1852.
  = Neumannia Brongn., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 2, 15: 369. 1841.
  = Orthopetalum Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 17, 70. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’).
  = Phlomostachys Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 16, 45. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’).
  = Willrussellia A. Chev., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 84: 503. 1938 (‘1937’).

Portea K. Koch, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 4, 6: 368. 1856.

Pseudaechmea L.B. Sm. & Read, Phytologia 52: 53. 1982.

Pseudananas (Hassl.) Harms in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Ed. 2, 15a: 153. 1930.

Puya Molina, Sag. stor. nat. Chili: 160, 351. Oct 1782.
  = Pourretia Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. prodr.: 46. Oct 1794.

Quesnelia Gaudich., Voy. Bonite, Bot. Atlas: t. 54. 1842.
  = Lievena Regel, Gartenflora 29: 289. 1880.

Racinaea M.A Spencer & L.B. Sm., Phytologia 74: 152. 1993.

Ronnbergia E. Morren & André, Ill. Hort. 21: 120. 1874.

Steyerbromelia L.B. Sm., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 73: 699. 30 Mar 1987 (‘1986’).

Tillandsia L., Sp. pl.: 286. 1 Mai 1753.
  = Allardtia A. Dietr., Allg. Gartenzeitung 20: 241. 31 Jul 1852.
      º Platystachys K. Koch, Ind. Sem. Hort. Berol. 1854, App.: 11. 1855, nom. illeg.
  = Anoplophytum Beer, Flora 37: 346. 14 Jun 1854.
  = Bonapartea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. 3: 38. Aug 1802.
      º Acanthospora Spreng., Anleit. Kenntn. Gew. Ed. 2, 2(1): 255. 20 Apr 1817, nom. illeg.
      º Misandra F. Dietr., Nachtr. Vollst. Lex. Gärtn. Bot. 5: 102. 1819, nom. illeg.
  º Caraguata Adans., Fam. pl. 2: 67, 532. Jul-Aug 1763, nom. illeg.
  = Cipuropsis Ule, Verh. Bot. Vereins Prov. Brandenburg 48: 148. 1907.
  = Dendropogon Raf., Neogenyton: 3. 1825.
      = Diaphoranthema Beer, Flora 37: 349. 14 Jun 1854.
      º Strepsia (Nutt.) Steud., Nomencl. bot. Ed. 2, 2: 645. 1841, nom. illeg.
  = Phytarrhiza Vis., Due Piante Nuove Bromel.: 6. 1854.
      = Wallisia (Regel) E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 20: 97. 1870.
  = Pityrophyllum Beer, Fam. Bromel.: 17, 79. Sep-Oct 1856 (‘1857’).
  = Renealmia L., Sp. pl.: 286. 1 Mai 1753, nom. rej.

Ursulaea Read & H.U. Baensch, J. Bromeliad Soc. 44: 206. 1994.

Vriesea Lindl., Edward’s Bot. Reg. 29: ad t. 10. 7 Feb 1843, nom. cons.
  º Hexalepis Raf., Fl. tellur. 4: 24. 1838 (med.) (‘1836’), nom. rej.
  º Neovriesia Britton in Britton & P.Wilson, Bot. Porto Rico 5: 141. 10 Aug 1923, nom. illeg.

Werauhia J.R. Grant, Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt 91: 28. 1995.

Wittrockia Lindm., Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., ser. 2, 24: 20. 1891.


LIST IV: NOTHOGENERA (BIGENERIC HYBRIDS)

A thorough catalogue and primary reference for bromeliad hybrids may be found in ‘A preliminary listing of all known cultivar and grex names for the Bromeliaceae’ (Beadle 1991). A significantly larger and revised edition will be published in 1998. The 1991 work replaced the first ever listing of bromeliad hybrids, the ‘International checklist of bromeliad hybrids’ (The Bromeliad Society, Inc. 1979). The field of bromeliad hybridization and resulting naming of cultivars is rapidly evolving, and appears somewhat disordered. Careful consideration must be taken when forming nothogeneric names. Already, several recently-described names prove to be either invalid or illegitimate. Of importance are the three superfluous renamings: xCanularium (of xNidulistrum), xNeoistrum (of xCanegelia), and xNeolarium (of xNiduregelia).

All generic names (including nothogenera) must fulfill the requirements of effective publication as defined in the Botanical Code (Art. 29-31, H.9.1, Greuter et al. 1994). The most important of these Articles is the first: "29.1. Publication is effected, under this Code, only by distribution of printed matter (through sale, exchange, or gift) to the general public or at least to botanical institutions with libraries accessible to botanists generally. It is not effected by communication of new names at a public meeting, by the placing of names in collections or gardens open to the public, or by the issue of microfilm made from manuscripts, type-scripts or other unpublished material." Several frequently-cited works on bromeliad hybrids do not fulfill these requirements. Brian Smith’s ‘Manuscript of Bromeliad Hybrids and Cultivars’ (1984) is just that, a type-written manuscript that has never been published. No nothogeneric names, hybrids or cultivars may be cited has having been published in this work. Beadle (1991), however, effectively validated most of the nothogenera proposed in Smith’s manuscript. Likewise, Nat De Leon’s ("1985?") ‘Supplement to the International Checklist of Bromeliad Hybrids’ has not been effectively published since it is only a type-written document that has not been widely distributed to botanical libraries.

It should be noted that to date only bigeneric hybrids have been made and named in the Bromeliaceae (that specifically follow Art. H.6.1-6.2, Greuter et al. 1994). Intergeneric hybrids of three or more genera have not been successfully produced.

xAnagelia E.L. Sm., J. Bromeliad Soc. 33: 72. Mar-Apr 1983. Parent genera: Ananas Mill., Gard. Dict. abr. Ed. 4: [unpaged]. 28 Jan 1754 and Neoregelia L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 78. 1934.

xAnamea Anon., Int. Checklist Bromel. Hybrids: 22. Mai-Dec 1979. Parent genera: Ananas Mill., Gard. Dict. abr. Ed. 4: [unpaged]. 28 Jan 1754 and Aechmea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. prodr.: 47. Oct 1794.

xAnanananas D.A. Beadle, Prelim. Listing Cultivar Grex Names Bromel.: 20. Jun 1991. Parent genera: Ananas Mill., Gard. Dict. abr. Ed. 4: [unpaged]. 28 Jan 1754 and Pseudananas (Hassl.) Harms in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Ed. 2, 15a: 153. 1930.

xAndrolaechmea Anon., Bull. Bromeliad Soc. 1: 24. Mai-Jun 1951. Parent genera: Androlepis Brongn. ex Houllet, Rev. Hort. 42: 12. 1870 and Aechmea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. prodr.: 47. Oct 1794.

xBillmea K. Williams, J. Bromeliad Soc. 24: 26. Jan-Feb 1974. Parent genera: Billbergia Thunb., Pl. bras. 3: 30. 5 Jun 1821 and Aechmea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. prodr.: 47. Oct 1794.

xBillnelia A.D. Hawkes, Bromel. Pap. 1(6): 52. Oct 1959 ("1959-1960"). Parent genera: Billbergia Thunb., Pl. bras. 3: 30. 5 Jun 1821 and Quesnelia Gaudich., Voy. Bonite, Bot. Atlas: t. 54. 1842. This is the proper name for xBillque (in List V).

xCanegelia D. Butcher, Hybridist’s Handb., Ed. 3: 2. 1991. Parent genera: Canistrum E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 23: 257. 1873 and Neoregelia L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 78. 1934. Although both published in 1991, xCanegelia predates xNeoistrum as Beadle in fact cites Butcher’s cross.

xCanmea R. Foster & M.B. Foster, J. Bromeliad Soc. 23: 175. Sep-Oct 1973. Parent genera: Canistrum E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 23: 257. 1873 and Aechmea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. prodr.: 47. Oct 1794.

xCanularium D.A. Beadle, Prelim. Listing Cultivar Grex Names Bromel.: 36. Jun 1991, nom. illeg. º xNidulistrum A.D. Hawkes, Bromel. Pap. 3(9): 85. Mar 1963 ("1961-1963"). Parent genera: Canistrum E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 23: 257. 1873 and Nidularium Lem., Jard. Fleur. 4: ad t. 411; Misc.: 60. 1854. This is a superfluous renaming of xNidulistrum.

xCryptananas D.A. Beadle, Prelim. Listing Cultivar Grex Names Bromel.: 36. Jun 1991. Parent genera: Cryptanthus Otto & A. Dietr., Allg. Gartenzeitung 4: 298. 17 Sep 1836 and Ananas Mill., Gard. Dict. abr. Ed. 4: [unpaged]. 28 Jan 1754.

xCryptbergia Anon., Bull. Bromeliad Soc. 2: 72. 1952. Parent genera: Cryptanthus Otto & A. Dietr., Allg. Gartenzeitung 4: 298. 17 Sep 1836 and Billbergia Thunb., Pl. bras. 3: 30. 5 Jun 1821.

xCryptmea E.L. Sm., J. Bromeliad Soc. 33: 72. Mar-Apr 1983. Parent genera: Cryptanthus Otto & A. Dietr., Allg. Gartenzeitung 4: 298. 17 Sep 1836 and Aechmea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. prodr.: 47. Oct 1794.

xDyckcohnia G.H. Anderson ex J.R. Grant, nothogen. nov., for the cross reported with the informal name (‘dyckcohnias’) by G.H. Anderson, J. Bromeliad Soc. 36: 103. 1986. Parent genera: Dyckia Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxv, 1194. Oct-Dec 1830 and Deuterocohnia Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 430, 506. 1 Feb 1894.

xDycktia D.A. Beadle, Prelim. Listing Cultivar Grex Names Bromel.: 82. Jun 1991. Parent genera: Dyckia Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxv, 1194. Oct-Dec 1830 and Hechtia Klotzsch, Allg. Gartenzeitung 3: 401. 19 Dec 1835.

xGuzlandsia Anon., Int. Checklist Bromel. Hybrids: 35. Mai-Dec 1979. Parent genera: Guzmania Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. 3: 37. Aug 1802 and Tillandsia L., Sp. pl.: 286. 1 Mai 1753.

xGuzvriesea A.D. Hawkes, Bromel. Pap. 1(5): 45. 1 Sep 1959 ("1959-1960"). Parent genera: Guzmania Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. 3: 37. Aug 1802 and Vriesea Lindl., Edward’s Bot. Reg. 19: ad t. 10. 1843.

xHechcohnia G.H. Anderson ex J.R. Grant, nothogen. nov., for the cross reported with the informal name (‘hechcohnia’) by G.H. Anderson, J. Bromeliad Soc. 36: 103. 1986. Parent genera: Hechtia Klotzsch, Allg. Gartenzeitung 3: 401. 19 Dec 1835 and Deuterocohnia Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 430, 506. 1 Feb 1894.

xHohentea D.A. Beadle, Prelim. Listing Cultivar Grex Names Bromel.: 89. Jun 1991. Parent genera: Hohenbergia Schult. & Schult.f. in Roem. & Schult., Syst. veg. 7(2): lxxi, 1251. Oct-Dec 1830 and Portea K. Koch, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 4, 6: 368. 1856.

xNeobergia E.L. Sm., J. Bromeliad Soc. 33: 73. Mar-Apr 1983. Parent genera: Neoregelia L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 78. 1934 and Billbergia Thunb., Pl. bras. 3: 30. 5 Jun 1821.

xNeoistrum D.A. Beadle, Prelim. Listing Cultivar Grex Names Bromel. 89. Jun 1991, nom. illeg. º xCanegelia D. Butcher, Hybridist’s Handb., Ed. 3: 2. 1991. Parent genera: Neoregelia L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 78. 1934 and Canistrum E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 23: 257. 1873. This is a superfluous renaming of xCanegelia.

xNeolarium R. Foster & M.B. Foster, J. Bromeliad Soc. 23: 175. Sep-Oct. 1973, nom. illeg. º xNiduregelia A.D. Hawkes, Bromel. Pap. 3(9): 85. Mar 1963 ("1961-1963"). Parent genera: Neoregelia L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 78. 1934 and Nidularium Lem., Jard. Fleur. 4: ad t. 411; Misc.: 60. 1854. This is a superfluous renaming of xNiduregelia.

xNeomea M.B. Foster, Bull. Bromeliad Soc. 8: 75. Sep-Oct 1958. Parent genera: Neoregelia L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 78. 1934 and Aechmea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. prodr.: 47. Oct 1794.

xNeophytum M.B. Foster, Bull. Bromeliad Soc. 8: 73. Sep-Oct 1958. Parent genera: Neoregelia L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 78. 1934 and Orthophytum Beer, Flora 37: 347. 14 Jun 1854.

xNeotanthus M.B. Foster, Grande 1(1): 21. 1978. Parent genera: Neoregelia L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 78. 1934 and Cryptanthus Otto & A. Dietr., Allg. Gartenzeitung 4: 298. 17 Sep 1836.

xNidbergia D. Butcher, Checklist Bromel. Hybrids Australia: 28. 1982. Parent genera: Nidularium Lem., Jard. Fleur. 4: ad t. 411; Misc.: 60. 1854 and Billbergia Thunb., Pl. bras. 3: 30. 5 Jun 1821.

xNidulistrum A.D. Hawkes, Bromel. Pap. 3(9): 85. Mar 1963 ("1961-1963"). Parent genera: Nidularium Lem., Jard. Fleur. 4: ad t. 411; Misc.: 60. 1854 and Canistrum E. Morren, Belgique Hort. 23: 257. 1873. This name predates xCanularium.

xNidumea L.B. Sm., Bull. Bromeliad Soc. 18: 63. Mai-Jun 1968. Parent genera: Nidularium Lem., Jard. Fleur. 4: ad t. 411; Misc.: 60. 1854 and Aechmea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. prodr.: 47. Oct 1794.

xNiduregelia A.D. Hawkes, Bromel. Pap. 3(9): 85. Mar 1963 ("1961-1963"). Parent genera: Nidularium Lem., Jard. Fleur. 4: ad t. 411; Misc.: 60. 1854 and Neoregelia L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 78. 1934. This name predates xNeolarium.

xOrtholarium R. Foster & M.B. Foster, J. Bromeliad Soc. 23: 175. Sep-Oct 1973. Parent genera: Orthophytum Beer, Flora 37: 347. 14 Jun 1854 and Nidularium Lem., Jard. Fleur. 4: ad t. 411; Misc.: 60. 1854.

xOrthomea E.L. Sm., J. Bromeliad Soc. 33: 75. Mar-Apr 1983. Parent genera: Orthophytum Beer, Flora 37: 347. 14 Jun 1854 and Aechmea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. prodr.: 47. Oct 1794.

xOrthotanthus Anon., J. Bromeliad Soc. 24: 26. Jan-Feb 1974. Parent genera: Orthophytum Beer, Flora 37: 347. 14 Jun 1854 and Cryptanthus Otto & A. Dietr., Allg. Gartenzeitung 4: 298. 17 Sep 1836.

xPitinia J. Irvin ex Baskerville, J. Bromeliad Soc. 48(2): 64. Mar-Apr 1998, for the cultivar ‘Coral Horizon’ formed by the cross Pitcairnia rubronigrifolia Rauh x Pepinia corallina (Linden & André) Varadarajan & Gilmartin by Jim Irvin, registered by the Bromeliad Society International 01-20-94. Parent genera: Pitcairnia L’Hér., Sert. Angl.: 7. Jan 1789, nom. cons. and Pepinia Brongn. in André, Ill. Hort. 17: 32. 1870.

xPortemea Ariza-Julia, J. Bromeliad Soc. 28: 21. Jan-Feb 1978. Parent genera: Portea K. Koch, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 4, 6: 368. 1856 and Aechmea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. prodr.: 47. Oct 1794.

xPseudanamea H.U. Baensch & U. Baensch, Blüh. Bromel.: 249. Sep 1994; Bloom. Bromel.: 249. Nov 1994. Parent genera: Pseudananas (Hassl.) Harms in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Ed. 2, 15a: 153. 1930 and Aechmea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. prodr.: 47. Oct 1794.

xPucohnia G.H. Anderson ex D.A. Beadle, Prelim. Listing Cultivar Grex Names Bromel.: 200. Jun 1991. Parent genera: Puya Molina, Sag. stor. nat. Chili 160, 351. Oct 1782 and Deuterocohnia Mez in Mart., Fl. bras. 3(3): 430, 506. 1 Feb 1894.

xQuesmea Knobloch, J. Bromeliad Soc. 22: 58. Mai-Jun 1972. Parent genera: Quesnelia Gaudich., Voy. Bonite, Bot. Atlas: t. 54. 1842 and Aechmea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. prodr.: 47. Oct 1794.

xQuesregelia J. Carrone, J. Bromeliad Soc. 33: 207. Sep-Oct 1983. Parent genera: Quesnelia Gaudich., Voy. Bonite, Bot. Atlas: t. 54. 1842 and Neoregelia L.B. Sm., Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 78. 1934.

xStreptolarium D.A. Beadle, Prelim. Listing Cultivar Grex Names Bromel.: 201. Jun 1991. Parent genera: Streptocalyx Beer, Flora 37: 348. 14 Jun 1854 and Nidularium Lem., Jard. Fleur. 4: ad t. 411; Misc.: 60. 1854.

xStreptomea E.L. Sm., J. Bromeliad Soc. 33: 75. Mar-Apr 1983. Parent genera: Streptocalyx Beer, Flora 37: 348. 14 Jun 1854 and Aechmea Ruiz & Pav., Fl. peruv. prodr.: 47. Oct 1794.

xVriecantarea J.R. Grant, Phytologia 79: 256. (‘Sept 1995’) 10 Jun 1996. Parent genera: Vriesea Lindl., Edward’s Bot. Reg. 19: ad t. 10. 1843 and Alcantarea (Morren ex Mez) Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 10: 802. 1929.

xVrieslandsia Ch. Chevalier, Bull. Soc. Natl. Hort. France V, 4: 213-215. 1931. Parent genera: Vriesea Lindl., Edward’s Bot. Reg. 19: ad t. 10. 1843 and Tillandsia L., Sp. pl.: 286. 1 Mai 1753.


LIST V: INVALID NOTHOGENUS

A single published nothogeneric name can not be used because it is invalid.

‘xBillque’ Anon., Int. Checklist Bromel. Hybrids: 29. Mai-Dec 1979. This name is invalid because it is formed from the first part of the names of both its parent genera (Art. H.6.2 Greuter et al. 1994). Therefore, xBillnelia (in List IV) is the proper name for the bigeneric hybrid between Billbergia and Quesnelia.


LIST VI: PUTATIVE FOSSIL GENERA

The five names below that describe putative bromeliad fossils are included here for complete historical documentation until such time that a thorough analysis is undertaken on the "fossil Bromeliaceae." The Bromeliaceae are a relatively new group that evolved initially in the Andes of South America and are largely restricted to the New World (with Pitcairnia feliciana of Guinée, Africa, as the only known exception). Therefore, it is highly unlikely (with the exception of perhaps Karatophyllum) that these represent actual bromeliads, but more likely other monocots or cycads. See Gómez (in Rev. Biol. Trop. 20(2): 223. 1972) for a good overview of these genera. In one case, extant species have been placed under a generic name that originally was given to a genus of fossil plants, Echinostachys.

Bromeliaceophyllum Weyland, Paleontographica, Abt. B., Paläophytol. 103: 56. 6 Nov 1957. - T.: Bromeliaceophyllum rheneanum Weyland, Paleontographica, Abt. B., Paläophytol. 103: 56. 6 Nov 1957. Based on leaf remains from Miocene deposits in Germany. From the Latin name of the family ‘Bromeliaceae’, and the Greek phyllon, leaf.

Bromelianthus A. Massal., Sagg. fotogr. piante foss.: 62. 1859. - T.: Bromelianthus heuflerianus A. Massal., Sagg. fotogr. piante foss.: 62. 1859. Based on a flower from Eocene deposits in Italy. From the generic name Bromelia, and the Greek anthos, flower.

Bromelites Schmalh., Palaeontol. Abh. 1: 296, 302. 1883. - T.: Bromelites dolinskii Schmalh., Palaeontol. Abh. 1: 296, 302. 1883. Based on collections from an Eocene deposit near Kiev, Ukraine. From the generic name Bromelia, and the Greek suffix -ites, having the nature of.

Echinostachys Brongn., Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 15: 457. Dec 1828; Prodr. hist. vég. foss.: 135, 137. Dec 1828. - T.: Echinostachys oblonga Brongn. Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 15: 457. Dec 1828; Prodr. hist. vég. foss.: 135, 137. Dec 1828. Based on a Triassic fossil from Sultz-les-Bains, France. From the Greek echinos, spiny, and stachys, spike.

Echinostachys as treated by Planchon (in Hort. donat.: 25. 1858 [‘1854-1858’]) is not a separate generic name as suggested by ‘Index nominum genericorum’ 1979: 595. This is evident from Beer (in Fam Bromel. 148-150. 1856 [‘1857’]), where four species are treated: Echinostachys pineliana and E. rosea for extant species; and E. oblonga and E. cylindrica for fossil species in reference to a Brongniart manuscript. The first of these is the only species treated in Planchon (1858), whereas the third dates from 1828, and provides the type of the genus.

Karatophyllum L.D. Gómez, Revista Biol. Trop. 20: 223. Dec 1972. - T.: Karatophyllum bromelioides L.D. Gómez, Revista Biol. Trop. 20: 223. Dec 1972. Based on collections from Costa Rica that appear similar to that of Bromelia pinguin. From the generic name Karatas, and the Greek phyllon, leaf.


CONCLUSION

As a result of the preparation of this catalogue, a number of nomenclatural problems have surfaced, and are summarized here. Two new lectotypes are selected in this work, namely Tillandsia regina for Alcantarea and Tussacia nitida for Tussacia. Accordingly, since Tussacia is an obligate synonym of Catopsis, the traditionally recognized lectotype of Catopsis changes from Tillandsia nutans to Tussacia nitida (º Catopsis nitida).

Several of the lectotypes or types of genera indicated in Smith & Downs ‘Flora Neotropica’ are incorrect (e.g. Pogospermum). The more important cases include those of Bromelia, Pepinia, and Thecophyllum. In the case of Pepinia, under the new rules on ‘ex’ and ‘in’ (Art. 46.1-6 Greuter et al. 1994), the type changes from Pitcairnia aphelandriflora to Pitcairnia punicea. In Bromelia, the lectotype changes from B. pinguin to B. karatas [where the name Bromelia karatas predates its illegitimate renaming to Bromelia plumieri.] Lastly, the type of Thecophyllum changes from T. poortmanii to T. wittmackii.

Five generic names have substitutes if they are recognized as homonyms of previously published names: Allardtia (Platystachys), Bakeria (Bakerantha), Nidularium (Aregelia), Regelia (Neoregelia), and Tussacia (Catopsis). For various reasons, only two of these substitutes are currently recognized, Catopsis and Neoregelia.

Several recently established or resurrected generic names are either illegitimate or incorrect. In several cases of Smith & Kress’ elevation of seven subgenera of Aechmea (sensu Smith & Downs 1979) to the generic rank [Phytologia 66: 70-79. 27 Apr 1989; Phytologia 69: 272-274. 14 Nov (‘Oct’) 1990], they did not follow correct nomenclature or taxonomy. Their recognition of Platyaechmea was superfluous since it includes Hoplophytum; Macrochordion is superfluous since it includes Eriostax; and Pothuava is illegitimate since Hoiriri predates it with the same type species. In the future, consultation of this catalogue when resurrecting names or describing new genera should prevent any further large-scale nomenclatural errors, especially in the anticipated generic revisions of Aechmea, Guzmania, and Tillandsia.

However, once the taxonomy these genera is resolved, it may be desirable to propose the nomenclatural rejection of several names before formal recognition of these groups. For example, if Diaphoranthema (Tillandsia subg. Diaphoranthema) and Macrochordion (Aechmea subg. Macrochordion) are recognized, it may be desirable to submit a proposal to the Committee for Spermatophyta for the nomenclatural rejection of their predating names Dendropogon and Eriostax respectively. There is a good case to be made for the rejection of each since neither has ever been recognized in any major taxonomic treatment, not even at the subgeneric rank. Nomenclatural stability would be maintained through such rejection.

Since two nothogeneric names are in use, although they have not been validly published, they are validated in this catalogue: xDyckcohnia G.H. Anderson ex J.R. Grant, and xHechcohnia G.H. Anderson ex J.R. Grant. Regarding the illegitimate nothogeneric names, since two seem to have never been adopted (xNidulistrum and xNiduregelia), it may be desirable to submit a proposal for their rejection over the currently used (though superfluous) names xCanularium and xNeolarium respectively. Since the field of bromeliad hybridization and the naming of such results seem somewhat disorganized, the more stability that can be maintained is for the better.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Foremost, JRG thanks James L. Reveal, University of Maryland-College Park, for the suggestion and enthusiasm to embark upon this project and his review the manuscript. Both JRG and GZ greatly appreciate the assistance of colleagues who either provided literature, conducted library research, or gave insight into problematic issues: Dawn Arculus, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.; Don Beadle, Venice, Florida; Joseph Beaujean, Université de Liège, Belgium; Chet Blackburn, Auburn, California, Editor of the Journal of the Bromeliad Society; Derek Butcher, Fulham, S.A., Australia; Rosemary Davies, Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, England; Ellen Farr, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.; Henri Jacques-Félix, Nogent-Sur-Marne, France; Elton Leme, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Editor of Bromélia; Dan Nicolson, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., Klaus Sasse, Schatzmeister, Deutsche Bromelien-Gesellschaft, Bochum, Germany, and Alice Todd, Fairbanks, Alaska. We also thank Ellen Baskerville, Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, Sarasota, Florida, who carefully oversaw the manuscript through review, revision and into publication.

Library research was conducted by JRG at the U.S. National Agriculture Library, Beltsville, Maryland as well as the Botany Library, Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., the U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., the McKeldin Library, University of Maryland - College Park, the Rasmuson Library, University of Alaska - Fairbanks, and the Herbarium, University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, AK, and by GZ at the libraries of the Herbarium, Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands, and the Rijksherbarium, Leiden, The Netherlands.


APPENDIX: CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF BROMELIACEAE MONOGRAPHS AND OTHER WORKS SIGNIFICANT TO THE FAMILY

PLUMIER C. 1703. Nova plantarum americanarum genera. Parisiis: apud Joannem Boudot.

LINNAEUS C. 1753. 1 Mai. Bromeliaceae In: Species plantarum, exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundem systema sexuale digestas. Holmiae [Stockholm]: Impensis Laurentii Salvii. 285-287.
_____. 1762. Sep. Bromeliaceae In: Species plantarum, exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundem systema sexuale digestas. Ed. 2. Holmiae [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii. 2: 408-411.

LINDLEY J. 1827. Billbergia iridifolia. Bot. Reg. ad t. 1068. Within this paper is the first synopsis of the genera of the Bromeliaceae. Also found is a poignant message of the difficulty of bromeliad taxonomy. Lindley states: "It would be difficult to point out a family of plants more interesting from their beauty or singularity than that of the Bromeliaceae, and of which, notwithstanding, the systematic arrangement has been less carefully studied."

SCHULTES J. A. AND J. H. SCHULTES In: J. J. ROEMER AND J. A. SCHULTES. 1830. Oct-Dec. Bromeliaceae In: Caroli a Linné equitis Systema vegetabilium secundem classes ordines genera species. Cum characteribus differentiis et synonymiis, editio nova, speciebus inde ab editione xv. detectis aucta et locupletata. Stuttgart: J.G. Cottae. 7(2): 1193-1287.

BEER J. G. 1856. Sep-Oct (‘1857’). Die Familie der Bromeliaceen. Nach ihrem habituellen Character bearbeitet mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Ananassa. Wien: Tendler & Comp.

MORREN É. 1873. Oct. Catalogue des Broméliacées cultivées au jardin botanique de l'Université de Liège Janvier 1873. Gand: Imprimerie C. Annoot-Braeckman.

KOCH K. 1874. (‘1873’). Appendix quarta ad indicem seminum horti berolinensis anni 1873. Conspectus generum et subgenerum Bromeliacearum germine supero aut seminifero praeditarum adjectis observationibus de speciebus novis nonnullis hujus ordinis auctore C. Koch. Berlin: Typis C. Feisteri (L. Mewesii Berolinensis). 1-7.

ANTOINE F. 1884. Phyto-Iconographie der Bromeliaceen des kaiserlichen königlichen Hofburg-Gartens in Wien. Wien: Gerold & Comp.

WITTMACK L. In: A. ENGLER AND K. PRANTL. 1887-1888. Bromeliaceae In: Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien nebst ihren Gattungen und wichtigeren Arten insbesondere den Nutzpflanzen, bearbeitet unter Mitwirkung zahlreicher hervorragender Fachgelehrten. 4(2): 32-48. 12 Sep 1887, 49-59. 21 Feb 1888. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann.

ANDRÉ É. 1889. Sep-Dec. Bromeliaceae Andreanae. Description et histoire des Broméliacées récoltées dans la Colombie, l'Écuador et le Vénézuéla. Paris: Librairie agricole; G. Masson.

BAKER J. G. 1889. 17 Aug-15 Oct. Handbook of the Bromeliaceae. London: George Bell & Sons.

MEZ C. In: C. F. P. MARTIUS. 1894. Bromeliaceae In: Flora Brasiliensis. Enumeratio plantarum in Brasilia hactenus detectarum quas suis aloirumque botanicis studiis descriptas et methodo naturali digestas partim icone illustratas editit C.P.F. de Martius. 3(3): 1-172. 1 Jan 1890, 173-286. 1 Nov 1891, 281-430. 15 Mai 1892, 425-634. 1 Feb 1894, 635-816. 15 Apr 1894. Leipzig: Frid. Fleischer in Comm.

BAILLON H. 1894. Oct. Bromeliaceae In: Histoire des plantes. Monographie des Amarylidacées, Broméliacées et Iridacées. Paris: Librairie Hachette. 86-118.

MEZ C. In: C. DE CANDOLLE. 1896. Jan. Monographiae Phanerogamarum Prodromi nunc continuatio, nunc revisio auctoribus Alphonso et Casimir de Candolle aliisque botanicis ultra memoratis. Vol. 9, Bromeliaceae. Paris: G. Masson. 1-990.

HARMS H. In: A. ENGLER AND K. PRANTL. 1930. Bromeliaceae In: Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien nebst ihren Gattungen und wichtigsten Arten, insbesondere den Nutzpflanzen. Unter Mitwirkung zahlreicher hervorragender Fachgelehrten begründet von A. Engler et K, Prantl. Ed. 2, 15a: 65-159. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann.

MEZ C. In: A. ENGLER. 1934-1935. Bromeliaceae In: Das Pflanzenreich, regni vegetabilis conspectus. Im Auftrage der Preuss. Akademie der Wissenschaften, herausgegeben von A. Engler. Fam. IV. 32.; Heft 100(1): 1-160. 27 Nov 1934, 100(2): 161-320. 12 Feb 1935, 100(3): 321-480. 28 Mai 1935, 100(4): 481-667. 10 Oct 1935. Berlin: Wilhelm Engelmann.

DUTRIE L. 1946-1948. Les Broméliacées: genres - espèces - hybrides. Bulletin Horticole 1: 39-42, 60-63, 94-96, 118-121, 156-160. 2: 52-53, 56, 118-120, 176-177, 217-218. 3: 18-21.

SMITH L. B. AND R. J. DOWNS. 1974. Pitcairnioideae (Bromeliaceae). Flora Neotropica. Monograph no. 14. pt. 1. New York: Hafner Press. 1-662.
_____. AND _____. 1977. Tillandsioideae (Bromeliaceae). Flora Neotropica. Monograph no. 14. pt. 2. New York: Hafner Press. 663-1492.
_____. AND _____. 1979. Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae) Flora Neotropica. Monograph no. 14. part 3. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 1493-2142.

THE BROMELIAD SOCIETY INC. 1979. Mai-Dec. International checklist of bromeliad hybrids, containing the names and parentage of all known bromeliad hybrids to December 31, 1978. Los Angeles, California: The Bromeliad Society, Inc.

BEADLE D. A. 1991. Jun. A preliminary listing of all known cultivar and grex names for the Bromeliaceae. Corpus Christi, Texas: The Bromeliad Society, Inc.

LUTHER H. E. AND E. SIEFF. 1994. De rebus Bromeliacearum I. Selbyana 15: 9-93.
_____. AND _____. 1997. De rebus Bromeliacearum II. Selbyana 18: 103-148.


LITERATURE CITED

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L. HAWKSWORTH, P. M. JØRGENSEN, D. H. NICOLSON, P. C. SILVA, P. TREHANE, AND J. MCNEILL. 1994. International code of botanical nomenclature. (Tokyo Code), adopted by the Fifteenth International Botanical Congress, Yokohama, August-September 1993. Regnum Veg. 131. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany

LAWRENCE G. H. M., A. F. G. BUCHHEIM, G. S. DANIELS, AND H. DOLEZAL. 1968. Botanico-Periodicum-Huntianum [BPH]. Hunt Botanical Library, Pittsburgh, PA.

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TREHANE P., C. D. BRICKELL, B. R. BAUM, W. L. A. HETTERSCHEID, A. C. LESLIE, J. McNEILL, S. A. SPONGBERG, AND F. VRUGTMAN. 1995. International code of nomenclature for cultivated plants - (ICNCP or Cultivated plant code). Quarterback Publishing, Wimborne, UK.


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